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THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.
BY J. E. WORCESTER. A. M.
THE knowledge of geography possessed by the ancients, was confined chiefly to the middle and south of Europe, the south-western part of Asia, and the northern part of Africa.
The geography of the New Testament is limited mostly to the countries bordering on the Mediterranean sea. This sea is called in the Old Testament the Great Sea, and most of the countries mentioned in that portion of the Scriptures, either bordered upon it, or were situated not very far distant. Some of the most remote were Persia and Media.
At the period of the ministry of our Saviour and of his apostles, almost all the countries mentioned in the New Testament were included in the Roman empire, or were subject to the Romans.
The world, as the word is used in the New Testament, sometimes means the whole inhabited world; sometimes it includes only the Roman empire; and sometimes it is used in a still far more limited
The only seas which are spoken of in the New Testament are the sea of Galilee, which is properly a lake, the Red sea, and parts of the Mediterranean sea.
The journeyings of our Saviour, during his ministry, were limited to Palestine.
The travels of St. Paul in preaching the gospel, were confined chiefly to Palestine, Syria, the countries of Asia Minor, also Greece and Italy.
The country now called Palestine, or the Holy Land, was anciently styled the Land of Canaan, afterwards the Land of Promise, or the Promised Land, the Land of Israel, and Judea.-It was anciently divided into 12 parts or tribes, named from the sons of Jacob; afterwards into the two kingdoms of Judah and Israel. At the period of the New Testament history, it was subject to the Romans, and the part west of the Jordan was divided into three provinces, Judea, in the south, Samaria, in the middle, and Galilee, in the north.
The countries of Asia Minor, mentioned in the New Testament, were Mysia, Troas, Bithynia, Pontus, Asia, Galatia, Phrygia, Lycaonia, Cappadocia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, and Cilicia. The Roman proconsular province of Asia embraced the western part of Asia Minor, comprehending Mysia, Phrygia, Lydia, and Caria. The seven churches of Asia were all included in this province.
Ab-i-le'ne, pr.* Colo-Syria, be-| A-cha'i-a, pr. Peloponnesus; also tween Libanus and Anti-Libaa pr., including all the south part of Gr.
A-cel'da-ma, field, S. of J.
| Ad-ra-myt'ti-um, now Adramiti, *Explanations. In the following notices of the places mentioned in the New Testament, distances are given in geographical miles The abbreviation A. M. is used for Asia Minor;-Gr. for Greece;
s-p. Asia Minor in Mysia; 70 N. Smyrna. A'dri-a, a name of the Adriatic sea, or gulf of Venice, so called from the town of Adria, in Italy. E-galan Sea, now Archipelago, a sea between Gr. and A. M. Al-ex-an'dri-a, or Al-ex-an-dri'a,
great city and s-p. Egypt, for a long time the most commercial city in the world. It was also a distinguished seat of learning, and famous for its library, which was burnt in 638. It is now in a state of decay, but contains some remarkable remains of ancient grandeur, as Pompey's Pillar, Cleopatra's Needles, the Cisterns, and Catacombs. Am-phip'o-lis, now Emboli, city, Mac. near the mouth of the Strymon; 48 E. by N. Thessalonica.
Anti-och, now Antachia, city, Syria, on the Orontes, 18 miles above its mouth. It was once the chief city of Syria, and famous for its magnitude, wealth, and commerce. It was styled the 'eye of the eastern church;' and here the disciples of Christ were first called Christians. An'ti-och, now Akshehr, t. A. M. in Pisidia; 180 W. by N. Tar
An-tip'a-tris, t. Samaria; 25 W
SW. Samaria. Ap'pi-i Fo'rum, now Fossa Nuova, t. Italy; 40 S. E. Rome. A-pol-lo'ni-a, t. Mac. 30 E. by S. Thessalonica. A-ra'bi-a, country, Asia, lying east of the Red sea, and south of Pal. and Syria. It was divided into Arabia Felix, or Happy, in the south, comprising the most fer
tile part; Arabia Petræa or Stony, in the north west; and Arabia Deserta in the north and north east, consisting chiefly of barren deserts of scorching sand.
A-re-op'a-gus, or Mars' Hill, a hill in the city of Athens, where the supreme court of justice was held. Ar-i-ma-the'a, or Ramah, t. Jud. 10 ESE. Joppa. Ar-ma-ged'don, place, Samaria, E. of Cæsarea. A'si-a, in the New Testament,
sometimes means A. M. and sometimes only a district in the western part of it, of which Ephesus was the chief city, but never the continent of Asia. As'sos, now Asso, s-p. A. M. in
Mysia; 32 W. Adramyttium. Ath'ens, capital of Attica, and the most famous city of Gr. It was for a long time the most celebrated school in the world for polite learning, arts, and sciences, and gave birth to some of the most eminent philosophers, poets, and statesmen of antiquity.
At-ta-li'a, now Sataha, s-p. A. M. in Pamphylia, on a bay of the Med. 20 W. Perga.
A-zo'tus, or Ash'dod, now Ezdoud, t. Pal. in the country of the Philistines; 20 S. by W. Joppa.
J. for Jerusalem;-Jud. for Judea;-lake of G. for lake of Ge nesareth ;-Mac. for Macedonia;-Med. for Mediterranean Sea ;Mt. for mountain;-Pal. for Palestine ;-pr. for province ;-s-p. for sea-port;-t. for town;-and v. for village.
Be-rala, now Veria, t. Mac.; 48
W. Thessalonica. Beth-ab'a-ra, t. Pal., on the east side of the Jordan. Beth'a-ny, t. Jud.; 2 E. J. Be-thes'da, pool, north of the temple at J.
Beth'le-hem, t. Jud.; 6 S. J. It is memorable on account of being the birth-place of our Saviour. It was styled Bethlehem of Judah, or Bethlehem Eph'ra-ta, to distinguish it from another Bethlehem in Zebulun, near Nazareth. The country to the south of Bethlehem is called in the New Testament, the Hill-country of Judea.
Beth'pha-ge, v. Jud.; on the mount
Cas-a-re'a, city and s-p. Pal., in
Samaria; 25 N Joppa. This was the seat of the Roman governours of Pal. Cas-a-re'a Phi-lip'pi; now Paneas, t. Pal., in Galilee; 24 E. by S. Tyre. This town was first called Laish, afterwards Dan. It was situated on the north border of the land of Israel, as Beer sheba was on the south. Hence the phrase, to express the limits of the country, From Dan to Beer-sheba." Cal'va-ry, a hill on the NW. side
of J.; where our Lord was crucified. Ca'na, t. Pal. in Galilee; a few
miles N. of Nazareth. Ca-per'na-um, t. Pal. in Galilee; on the north end of the lake of
G.; 60 N. J. In the vicinity is the mount on which our Saviour delivered his memorable ser
Cap-pa-do'ci-a, country, in the east part of A. M.
Ce'dron, or Kidron, rivulet, Jud. passing by J., and flowing inte the Dead sea.
Cen'chre-a, s-p. Gr., a little distance from Corinth, being the eastern port of that city. Char'ran, Ha'ran, or Charra, now Heren, t. Mesopotamia, 70 miles from the Euphrates, 150 ENE. Antioch.
Chi'os, now Scio, island in the Ægæan sea.
Cho-ra'zin, t. Pal., in Galilee, at the north end of the lake of G.; a little to the east of Capernaum.
Ci-li'ci-a, country in the SE. part of A. M.
Clau'da, a little island on the S. W. side of Crete. Cni'dus, now Crio, t. A. M.; in SW. corner; 70 S. Ephesus. Co-los'se, t. A. M. in Phrygia, on the Meander, near Laodicea. Coos, or Cos, now Stanchio, island in the Ægæan sea. Corinth, city, Gr. in the north part of the Peloponnesus, on the isthmus of Corinth; 46 WN W. Athens. It was celebrated for wealth, commercè, arts, and magnificence.
Crete, now Candia, the largest of the Grecian islands, situated to the south of the Ægæan sea. Cyprus, a large and fertile island in the eastern part of the Med. Cy-re'ne, now Curen, city & s-p. Africa, in Libya, on the Med."
Dal-ma-nu'tha, t. Pal., on SE. part of the lake of G. Dal-ma'ti-a, the southern part of Illyricum, on the east side of the Adriatic sea.
Da-mas'cus, city, Syria, 50 miles from the Med., 120 NNE. J. It is one of the most ancient cities in the world, famous both in sacred and profane history. It is now populous and commercial.
Dead Sea, Sea of Sodom, Salt Sea, or Lake As-phal-ti'tes, salt lake, Pal., 70 miles long, and 10 or 15 broad.
It occupies the spot where the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah are supposed to have stood. The water is clear and limpid, but very salt and bitter, and of greater specific gravity than that of any other lake that is known. De-cap'o-lis, a district of country in Pal. comprising ten cities, lying chiefly to the east of the Jordan and the lake of G. Der be, t. A. M., in Lycaonia; 40 S. Iconium.
Egypt, country, in NE. part of Africa, watered by the Nile, and celebrated as the cradle of the sciences.
E'lam, an ancient name of Persia. Em'ma-us, t. Jud., 7 miles from J. Here our Saviour appeared to his disciples after his resurrection. There were two other places of the same name; one 22 NW. of J.; the other near the south end of the lake of G. E'non, t. Pal., on W. side of the Jordan, near Salim. Eph'e-sus, city, A. M., capital of the province of Asia, on the Cayster; 35 S. by E. Smyrna. It was one of the most splendid cities in the world, and had a celebrated temple of Diana, which was accounted one of the seven wonders of the world. E'phra-im, t. Pal. in the country belonging to the tribe of Ephraim: 8 NE. J.
E-pi'rus, country in the NW.
most celebrated rivers of Asia. It rises in the mountains of Armenia, and after a course of 1500 miles, flows into the Persian gulf.
Fair Havens, s-p. on the east end of Crete.
Gad'a-ra, t. Pal., to the east of the lake of G.
Ga-la'ti-a, country, A. M., N. of Phrygia.
Gal'i-lee, the northern division of Pal., divided into Upper and Lower. Upper Galilee, the northern part, was called Galilee of the Gentiles. Ga'za, t. Pal., in the country of the Philistines; 44 SW. J. Gennesareth, Lake of, or Sea of Galilee, or Sea of Tiberias, lake, Pal.; 50 N. J. It is 17 miles long, and 6 broad. It is a beautiful lake, surrounded by fine scenery, and was much frequented by our Saviour and his disciples.
Ger-ge-senes', a people so called from Gergesa, a town situated to the east of the lake of G. Geth-sem'a-ne, v. and garden on the east side of J. between mt. Olivet and the brook Cedron. Gol'go-tha, a part of Calvary
where our Saviour was cruci fied.
Go-morrah, one of the five cities which were situated on the plain of Sodom, and were destroyed by fire from heaven. Greece, a country comprising the
S. E. part of Europe and cele-1 brated for arts and sciences. The Romans divided Gr. into two parts, Mac., in the north, comprehending Mac., Epirus, and Thessaly; and Achaia in the south, comprising Gr. Proper, and the Peloponnesus. The Greeks established various colonies in A. M., the inhabitants of which spoke the Greek language, and were also called Greeks.
Hi-e-rap'o-lis, t. A. M., in Phrygia, on the Mæander, near Colosse.
I-co'ni-um, city, A. M., capital of Lycaonia; 150 WNW. Tarsus. I-du-ma'a, country, lying in the north of Arabia, and south of Jud. Il-lyr'i-cum, country, lying on the east side of the Adriatic sea, north of Epirus. It'a-ly, country, Europe, comprising a peninsula, in a form resembling that of a boot.
Jer'i-cho, city, Jud.; 5 miles W. of the river Jordan, 17 ENE. J. It was noted for palm trees, and was once a large city, but now a mean village. Je-ru'sa-lem, celebrated city of Asia, capital of ancient Jud. and of modern Pal.; 34 ESE. Joppa. It is memorable for its ancient temple, for the death and resurrection of our Saviour, and for its signal destruction by Titus, the Roman emperour. It was built on four hills, Zion, or Sion, Moriah, Acra, and Bezeta. The name Zion is often applied to the whole city. The modern city is built on Mount Moriah,
and is chiefly noted for pilgrimage. It contains about 20,000 inhabitants.
Jew'ry, another name for Jud. Jop'pa, now Jaffa, s-p. Jud. ; 34 WNW. J. It is noted as the port of J.
Jor'dan, river, Pal., the only considerable one in the country. It rises in Mt. Hermon, passes through lakes Merom and G. and after a course of 150 miles, flows into the Dead sea."The country beyond the Jordan" comprised Peræa, Batanea, Trachonitis, Ituræa, Galaaditis, Gaulonitis, and Decapolis.
Ju-de'a, the south part of Pal. often applied to the whole country.
L. La-od-i-ce'a, now Eski-hissar, t. A. M. in Phrygia; 120 E. by S. Smyrna.
La-se'a, t. near the east end of Crete.
Lib'y-a, country, Africa, to the
Lyc'i-a, country, A. M., near the S.