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art of revolution, which had reached such per- human nature, and a wonderful readiness in fection among them, is now well nigh for- grasping the details of the practical affairs of gotten.

life. Experts who have appeared before him

to advocate the adoption of some feature of a THE SECRET OF IT ALL

more civilized life than is found in Mexico President Diaz once appointed a young man have been driven to renewed study to enable to a government position in order to assist

them to parry his intelligent and searching him in his studies for the bar. Not long questions. afterwards, the complaint reached him that

A REPUBLICAN DESPOT the young man was so fully occupied with his government duties that he had no time to But for nearly four score years General study. “Let him do as I did," said the Diaz has drawn upon the resources of an iron President grimly, “study until two or three constitution until it now shows signs of wear. o'clock in the morning with a wet towel To this day he has held all power jealously in wrapped around my head." In this remark his own hands. Governors and ministers have President Diaz revealed one secret of his suc- become prominent and have achieved even incess—unflagging industry. To go to bed at ternational reputations, but they have instantly ten P. M. has been his rule for years. He vanished if it was so willed by the Chief Exgets up at six and immediately goes to work. ecutive. He is a self-constituted President in He takes no relaxation until every duty of the a country which, though provided with a conday is disposed of. Exacting, keeping per- stitution guaranteeing freedom of suffrage to sonal control of the affairs of every village; the people, has never witnessed the exercise he surveys his country every morning, as the of this privilege. With all the progress made owner of a vast estate upon whom rests the in the arts of peace and science, no progress responsibility for the prosperity of the land, has been made by the masses in the art of and the happiness and comfort of all the self-government, other than the acquisition of people. Over all he maintains a web of secret a better self-control, which is the necessary service which covers everything as with a fine concomitant of peace and prosperity.

The net. An unfriendly move is known at the President has been blamed for this lack of National Palace as soon as it is made, and it progress. Those who believe that the hope is as quickly checked by such stern, repressive of Mexico lies in her Indian people assert that methods as are possible to a ruler of a country in the past fifteen years they could have been which is republican in name only. In these taught local self-government. These people later days the system has become more pre- ieve that President Diaz could have put ventive than oppressive.

into motion the machinery of republicanism With the day's work disposed of, a horse- provided by the law of Juarez, but with which back ride or a drive is the President's recrea- the people have never been familiarized. tion; and two or three times a

year
he

Whether there be blame or not, the fact rethe mountains to hunt big game. His home mains that this has not been accomplished. life is an important part of the existence of President Diaz does not believe a Latin this man of action. Donna Carmen, his wife, American people can be governed under a is beloved by all who know her, and she is constitution modeled after that of the United credited with being a strong factor in the States. Personal, military, centralized govsoftening of the rugged outlines of her hus- ernment, is his recipe for success with Spanishband's character. He still pursues a purpose, Americans. Who shall say in the light of an enemy, his work or his pleasure, with the what he has done that he is wrong? same relentlessness with which he pursued If a Diaz could live forever, then there the Presidency until it was his.

would be no flaw in this system. But who is Born in Oaxaca, of Indian and Spanish de- there to take the leadership after him? Two scent, he has the admirable traits of both

now occupy the public eye, General races, and in his development the defects of Bernardo Reyes, Minister of War, and José both have been eliminated. He is calm and Yves Limantour, Minister of Finance. The deliberate of speech, business-like in his man- latter is now well known internationally. Fifner, and he always keeps the topic before him teen years ago he was unknown event well in hand. He has a keen insight into Mexican politics. Young, rich, a capa!

goes to

men

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lawyer and economic student, President Diaz spectacular in their leaders. Limantour inbrought him forth from his comparative tellectually commanding, is yet deficient in seclusion and placed him in the cabinet personal magnetism, and lacking the military Keenly intellectual, highly educated, and with instinct. He is accused by some of showing a personal knowledge of all the principal French sympathies. countries of the world, this man presents a It is General Bernardo Reyes, the idolized unique figure in the group of Central Ameri- leader of the army, to whom the popular can statesmen. After a long and hard day's fancy now turns. The favorite of President work in his department he finds his recreation Diaz, the hero of the student colony of the in the library of his palatial home which is capital, the dashing soldier who has raised the crowded with treasures of art, or he seats pay of every man in his army, impetuous, himself at the piano and demonstrates his fiery, poetic and sentimental, he is the man of familiarity with the work of the great masters the day, and no considerations of caution can of music. He is a Mexican, but of French stem the tide of popular approval. He is the descent. Inspired by enthusiasm and am- man-on-horseback come again. That he will bition, and aided by his unusual mental equip- meet the opportunity and the responsibility, ment, he has done more to modernize the should they come to him, as they were met national finances and the fiscal policy of his by the present ruler, is now the prayer of the country than all his predecessors together. Mexican people, and of the hosts of foreigners

A new banking system, an annual public who live in the country. surplus, the abolishment of many obnoxious schemes of taxation, a stable paper money,

THE NEW MEXICO greater freedom for foreign capital—these are

Should President Diaz still live to a greater a few of the things accomplished by Minister old age, the people of Mexico would wish Limantour. During the recent illness of him to select his successor, to install him in President Diaz this minister acted as pro- office, and to start the new government in the visional President. He is favored by the right direction. Limantour and Reyes both financial interests of the capital, and foreign have strong followings. They are both men investors find full protection under his admin- of the world, familiar with modern conditions. istration. He is ambitious. Why should not They are both intimate with and friendly to the provisional become the real President of the Americans. They are fully aware of the Mexico ?

importance to Mexico of continuing the Diaz

policy in the treatment of foreign capital. THE RULE OF THE MILITARY

Limantour is not a strong man physically, and The answer to this brings into clear relief many doubt his ability to carry the executive the difference between the republic of Mexico load for a long period even if it should be and a real republic. There is a constitutional placed upon his shoulders. The general

of filling the office of President by refer- opinion among the leaders of the Mexican ring the matter to the people, should that people is that the succession to President Diaz office suddenly become vacant. But this will be accomplished with the minimum discourse has never been, nor is it likely to be fol- order possible by a short term for Limantour lowed. Should President Diaz die suddenly, as provisional President, to be soon followed the Minister of Foreign Affairs, now Senor by General Reyes, who holds the key to the Mariscar, well known in the United States, present political situation in his control of the would call congress together at once to select army. The people of Mexico have been a new President. Congress would in form educated by President Diaz to the value of order an “election,” but in fact whoever con- tranquillity, and irresponsible agitators would trolled the situation would be declared elected. now find it difficult to create serious disThe people of the class called in the United turbance. The weight of public opinion States, “the mass of voters," would not be favors a peaceful solution of the political consulted. It would seem natural that Min- crisis that draws nearer, and in this the people ister Limantour should step into the Presi- will probably have their way. The future dential office, but Mexico is a military country, safety of Mexico lies in the growth of the and the Mexican people are imbued with a middle class, which has sprung into existence sentiment which demands an element of the with the recent adoption of modern methods.

way

Minutely carved, with designs of the 16th Century period, bound with gold and studded with gems.

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RUSSIA’S CONQUEST OF ASIA

THE QUIET ABSORPTION OF PERSIA ON ONE SIDE
WHILE MANCHURIA IS ACQUIRED BY DIPLOMACY AND
FORCE ON THE OTHER - RUSSIAN CONTROL ACROSS
ALL ASIA AND HER THREAT TO BRITISH INDIA

BY

JOHN KIMBERLY MUMFORD

[graphic]

O

N the
the present

In China the time was ripe. For a year map of Asia, and a half the railroads had been packing

re-colored by Russian troops and supplies down to the what has happened lately, Manchurian border. We have seen the Russia's purpose is writ- sequel. On the West, the Muscovite maten big and plain. It can chinery is not yet perfected; therefore she scarcely be misread any avails herself of peace and England's preoclonger. The frontal line cupation. In the West of Asia, as well as in of Russian control ex- the Far East, Russia is making hay while the tends in a huge crescent sun shines. Only the methods differ in the from the foot of the Per- two regions. sian Gulf away around to A look at the way of the Russian in Persia

Port Arthur, and it is does not leave upon the mind any such grim RUINS OF A MOSQUE

being drawn closer day picture of marching legions, of assault and by day—ever a completer cordon about pillage as in Tien-Tsin and Peking, but rather India. All the western horn of this cres- the fascinating image of the prestidigitator. cent has been added in the short time The hand he displays to the audience is selsince the Russian loan was made to Persia. dom the one more essential to the trick. In the At one stride Russia has passed forward absorption of Western Asia violence has been from the Caspian to the Arabian Sea, and set studiously in the background; outward throughout the entire length of the line evidence of the ancient conflicts is put away. she will be ready, before very long, to Nevertheless there is maintained a cogent move at a moment's notice. Her purpose

and continual reminder of potential power. is so large that she dare not, and so enduring Down the long military road which traverses that she need not, act until preparation is old Armenia spurs forever the Cossack, silent, complete.

suspicious, in peace eminently prepared for

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