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raged with a rage altogether heathen, lieve all the falsehoods of Beverley ? expressed in language disgraceful to Was not even Sedgwick's triumphmen who were in any way followers ant refutation of the Reprobate deof the Christian faith. Is it possible clared by them a failure 7 And, alas ! that all this enmity, rooted ineradica- has that distinguished man headed bly in so many fierce or sullen hearts, a petition to Parliament to admit can be forgotten by those who belong such an enemy within the gates ? to the Church of England, and des May he prove the true propbet at sire that she may be on earth im last-devoutly should we pray but mortal ? Can oblivion of all that her that, in utter hopelessness of any friends owe to her in defence against great future good, a prayer for its her enemies be so utter, that they attainment cannot reach the lips, but will now concede to them the claims, expires in the despondence of the so preposterously urged by those heart, unable, do wbat it will, to sienemies, to all the rights and privi. lence dismal forebodings of evil to Jeges conferred by the degrees of what it venerates and loves. those Universities which they have This, we confess, is strange to us so long maligned, and yearned, with even in the midst of all things longings—haply not to be vain--for strange—and we should wish to their decay and dissolution ? hear the question argued on its me
Grieved shall we be, but not ag- rits by the best men of Cambridge, tounded, even by such abandonment rather than treated, so imperfectly, of all feeling and principle as such with regard only to what is alleged concession would imply; for, in obe- and denied to have been old law and dience to the Spirit of the Age, they old custom. Both the law and the who from abject fear have not his custom are old enough, in all con. therto dared to withstand and op- science, against the claims of the pose it, are prepared, we verily be Dissenters to the right of graduafieve, to yield up every thing that tion in the English Universities; but shall only be demanded with a loud this is certain, that were all law and voice and a brazen forehead. Bless- all custom established to have been ings are now heaped on the Uni- against these claims for ever, that versities by clamour of the same consideration would signify not a jot throats that so long clothed them to the great majority of those who with curses,they are extolled to are determined to grant them-and the skies by the same lungs that so that they will settle the question in long laboured to sink them by ca- a far simpler style, by saying, it Jumny to the dust—and a call now sball be so. Aye-this is the age of rings over the land to fling open reason—there shall no longer be any their gates to the entrance of that monopolies of learning-free trade flower of the English youth, which in that mart as in every other-let they who raised it thanked heaven 'the goods be exposed to purchase, would never be exposed to the fatal without restriction, to all comers, blight of the foul air stagnating with let them but lay down their monies in them, and expiring only pesti- --and there shall be no advantage lential vapours. So strong is their given on the score of faith or creed passion, so derout their worship of ho! all ye who hunger and thirst for knowledge, human and divine-now knowledge, and aspire to the distincto be found only in perfection withtions which her institutions can conin the cloisters of those monks and fer, and no question shall be asked friars--that the Church of England's whether you be Jew or Gentile loving supporters cannot rest till either is as good as a Christian-for privileged to take their degrees too as to religion, that is an affair bewithin those holy precincts, and is- tween a man and his Maker-and in sue out into the world with titular seminaries of science, unless indeed bearings of honour, which their fa. you are determined to be a divine, thers had for ages taught their sons every man's creed should be left to to scorn, and up to last year, and his own conscience!- This assuredly all through it on to its close, chided never was the old law, or the old cuswith savage objurgations as worse tom of Cambridge-this is not stare than worthless, baubles at once, and super antiquas vias ; if it be-they who badges of shame. Did they not be venture to take their stand on such
old roads, will find that their founda- endowments, their privileges, and tions are built on piles that have be- their rights, benighted as they were come rotten, and the institutions in the inspissated gloom of the dark themselves will sink out of sight, ages, all along haunted by spectral and be swallowed up in the treach: syllogisms, with the shade of Aris. erous hollow.
totle himself leading the van, and of And what made the English Uni- Aquinas bringing up the rear, could versities monopolies of learning? have stood against one small cluster Not the State. The genius loci of of colleges, whether composing a each time-hallowed establishment, University or not, on the banks of which was no other than religion. the Severn or the Trent or the Tyne, Since the Reformation, that religion or on whatever far better than classic has been Christianity in its purest cal stream, Unitarian or Socinian spirit. The form it has assumed is zeal might chuse to build up towers that which seemed best to those who and temples, of a style and order shaped it, and whose sacred bounty of architecture of its own, to put to gave it a power of beneficence that shame the fantastic tricks superstihas made all the wide land rejoice. tion of old played with the lime-work How prosperous now are those noble of Granta and Rhedycina! endowments ! Genius, talent, learn- Professor Sedgwick “ expresses ing, sense, science, honour, religion, his surprise at the turn which the all fourish there; but how happens discussion has so far taken. We it, if they have indeed monopolized all have been wrangling upon mere these, that the high-minded, and high- antiquarian facts, and not on the souled, and opulent millions on broad principles of expediency afmillions—for so numerous, they say, fecting the future prospects of are they-who chose to separate Church and State.” That line of themselves from all connexion with argument, he says, was forced an the Church of England, and for so
him and his friends by their oppemany generations regarded with an nents.” Not so. In not very courevil eye the Universities to her so teous terms, as some think, he redear-incorporated with her very marked on the Counter-declaration existence, and prospering in the to the Petition. In the Petition it same light in which she prospered- was said, that “in praying for the how happens it that the Dissenters abolition of these restrictions, they have not, with all their desire for rejoice in being able to assure your knowledge, and all their power to honourable House, that they are only build up establishments of their own asking for a restitution of their anfor its purture and extension, done cient academical laws and laudable so, long before now, in rivalry with customs.” In the counter-declaration those monopolizing companies com- it is said, “ we, the undersigned posed for ages, as they said, of igno- resident members of the Senate, rant and slothful men, and to the deem it incumbent upon us, without sure destruction of a system in itself delay, publicly to protest against the 80 ruinous, and therefore naturally allegations and principles set forth 60 perishable ? True, the Univers in that petition. We do not admit sities of Oxford and Cambridge that the abolition of the existing, rebad got a long start-but then, they strictions would be, as alleged, a were going lazily downhill — their restitution of the ancient laws and very riches, it was said, were their laudable customs of the University; ruin; and though they might have still neither do we acknowledge that any contrived by their privileges to keep of those restrictions were imposed a hold on the country, which it would in a manner formal and unprecehave been no easy matter to force dented.” On this the Professor them to relax, yet is not the fiery zeal goes on to remark, that “if there and burning enthusiasm of young es- be any meaning in words, the two tablishments more than a match for passages above quoted are directly the lukewarm indifference and slow- opposed to one another. They con. blooded indolence of the old ? How tain an expression not of opinion, was it possible that a crowd of col. but of facts; if one be true, the other leges on the
Cam, and a crowd of col. must be false.” There is an expres. leges on the Isis, whatever were their sion-and a very mild one too-both
“ If one
of opinion and of facts. They pro- adopted, not of innovation, but of test against allegations and principles, prevention. The Standard shewe, and though firmly, mildly; and they that under the laws against noncondo not admit (can words be gentler?) formity, prior to the time of James the that the abolition of existing restric- First, private University statutes, for tions would be a restitution of an- the exclusion of nonconformists, cient laws and laudable customs. were altogether unnecessary, Professor Sedgwick manfully avows no more to be dreamt of than Uni. his approbation of the spirit of what versity statutes for the exclusion of he believes to have been ancient centaurs or griffins.". What, then, laws and laudable customs; and it may be asked, is the meaning of earnestly desires that spirit should the restitution of the University sysbreathe again in his beloved Granta. tem prior to the reign of James I. ? His opponents as manfully avow their In what did it differ, in form or spirit, dislike of that spirit, which, at the from the system then fortified by same time, they do not believe ever a confirmatory law, and enduring till did breathe there—were it hence- this day-but perhaps now about to forth to be there the pervading and be dissolved ? James was a poor dominant spirit, they anticipate from creature--but good laws have been it consequences the very reverse enacted by despicable Kings, and of those anticipated by him ; more despicable Parliaments, and and surely this is an expression of still more despicable Ministers. And opinion as well as facts.
how happened it, that these innobe true, the other must be false,” vating restrictions, destructive of sounds harsh ; yet it is, we believe, the ancient laws and laudable cusbut scholastic language, and the toms of the University," have been words do not sound so in Latin. suffered to remain in force till pretty But restricting the question to facts, far on in the reign of William the the Professor has been far from Fourth — William the Liberator ? overwhelming with his facts, and has Did William the Third, who was in not any mighty cause of triumph. his way a liberator too, annul the reWe shall not join “ the wrangling strictions which James the First imupon mere antiquarian facts” which posed? Or did he and other princes he has deprecated; but where has he do what they could to strengthen shewn, that before the time of James them? Was the Oranger blind to the First, Dissenters were ever ad- this flagrant crime of the Dethroned ? mitted into the University ? The Edi. Was the freed nation blind to it? tor of the Standard, with his wonted That king and people did not rejoice talent and learning, has shewn, by with one consent to rescind the base numerous quotations from the laws law of the tyrant? No. William bad of Edward Sixth and Elizabeth, that the eye as well as the beak of an no Dissenter was permitted even in eagle; and the glorious Revolution of the kingdom; consequently, that no 1688 purged with euphrasy the sight Dissenter could be admitted into the of the nation till it shone, and pierced University. The 6th of James the through despotism with a glance that First was but a recital of the law of withered. But, by all men, the rethe land. Dr Giffard points out to strictiverules of the Universities were Professor Sedgwick the nature of then clearly seen to be safeguards declaratory laws and ancillary sta- to the civil and religious liberties of tutes, as they are called by Lord England. William, therefore, conCoké. They are both alike conser- firmed, -not by any specific acts, vative of customs. The one merely for these were not needed, but by render more clear and certain what the whole tenor of his reign,--what they assume to bave been previously James had done; and James did no the law; the other only give effi. more than secure to the Universities cacy to principles before sanctioned by one measure, what Elizabeth had by the Legislature. King James secured to them by another--the meafound no Dissenters in the Universi. sures themselves being different, acties—no avowed Dissenters in the cording to the difference of the times. kingdom. From a new state of af- For in the reign of Elizabeth every fairs, new consequences were ap- body knows that tests were imposed, prehended; and a
in order to contine University edu
cation to the members of the Esta- tion?)—for a man so highly endowed, blished Church. The Puritans ob- and so eminent in science. But jected to the form of the oath of su- there are in the Universities many premacy, which differed from that as good as he who think very now in use, but it was not refused differently; and in saying that he except by the Roman Catholics. has numerous equals there, we mean That oath, and the act of uniformi- to do bim all honour. He is in the ty, constituted the test which was minority, whether we look to numdesigned to keep the Universities bers or intellect. To science, as he for the strict purposes of the Esta- uses the term, the appeal ought not blishment; and the act of King James in reason to be made-though, if it the First, as we have already seen, were, the decision would not be in faof which so many complaints have your of the measure;-as some of the been made, bad been only in con- most illustrious men of science seem formity with the same principle-as to be neutral, or at least are silent was forcibly stated in the House-we -and many are against it. The Theo. believe, in the admirable speech of logical Professors, and the Graduates Sir Robert Inglis. There really does in Divinity, think and feel as might not seem to us any wrangling have been expected of men devoutly about antiquarian facts” here ; nor dedicated to the duties of that Church can we sympathize with, nor indeed whose doctrine and discipline they understand, the excessive love and have sworn to preserve immaculate; admiration Professor Sedgwick feels and Professor Sedgwick, who was for the spirit that animated the Uni- above attributing to the Petition an versity of Cambridge centuries ago, authority which did not belong to it, as if it were a spirit so much more as the Premier and other Ministers liberal and enlightened than that were not ashamed to do, says gene. wbich now inspires it, and has in- rously-for there are occasions when spired it during its glorious growth; it requires generosity to be just and when it dies, will, we fear, leave “Of those who occupy the degrees it to gradual, perhaps rapid decay, of highest dignity in the University, That the ages before James the First a large majority are unfortunately were more intellectual than those against us; and among those who which have succeeded, we cannot have signed the counter.declaration, think; 80 that even had Professor are many whose names it is imposSedgwick shewn, what he has been sible to read without sentiments of unable to shew, that the Universi. honour and respect." The Wisdom ties were open to all human beings, of the University is against the meaand wooed men of all religious sure. creeds to their nursing bosoms, that It is far from agreeable to us to would be no argument with us for argue such a question against such a desiring that those Almæ Matres man—but till be convinces our reashould again appear as the exube- son, we must adhere to our opinions rantly-breasted sisters of Charity, which we have formed from expeand offer sustenance to all mouths, rience-nor have our opportunities though their milk of sound doctrine of judging aright been less favourmight be “with sputtering noise re- able than his own. In a letter from jected," and the wry faces and rem a lay member of the Senate, publishvolting stomachs of Dissenters shewed in the John Bull
, April 13, we their ingratitude for the much soli- find our own sentiments so much cited but unvalued boon.
better expressed than they could be We again say, that we do earnest- in any words of ours, that we cannot ly desire to hear this great question but enrich our pages with a quotatreated on its merits by Professor tion Sedgwick himself, or some other “ I will not discuss with you the Cambridge man of equal powers. question, whether the Universities On them
he has let escape him but are more properly Lay or Ecelesiasa few unsatisfactory glimpses of tical corporations. The best writers light. We long for full effulgence to upon English law consider them as be streamed on the principles of the partaking of the nature of both. It is Petition. None can suspect us of sufficient for me to know, that they want of respeet-(may we add, affec- have, for three centuries at least,
been the sanctuaries and the source of the University, as a University. of pure and undefiled religion to the Your principle goes to this. You laity and clergy of the land; and use the term Dissenter, but in a that they have been, under the bless- sense which necessarily includes all ing of God, amongst others, the sig- who are not members of the Church nal means of preserving, in the edu- of England, whether Roman Cathocated and influential classes of the lic, Protestant Dissenter, Jew, Turk, country, and through them in the Heretic, or Infidel. You would not nation at large, a purity and a unity have the University draw any disof Christian faith and practice. The tinction, in conferring degrees, or prevalence of dissent and infidelity admission into its governing body, may be traced to causes out of the between a believer and an unbeliereach of human control. Pride and You would have the constituindependence, the offspring of a sud- ency of the University consist of a den emancipation from intellectual mixed body of Christians and infidarkness, the rapid growth of know- dels. All places of dignity and power ledge and of science, unhallowed by are to be open to them. You would the principles of Christian morality, leave it to accident, whether the have contributed to dissever the Chancellor, High Steward, Profesa bonds of the religious and social syg. sors, or other officers of the Univer. tem.
sity, were of any or no faith. You “ Amidst all this confusion and would give persons of every creed error, through seasons of political and no creed a voice in the election anarchy and religious tempest, the of representatives, and thus deprive Church of England has ever been the Church of her only recognised the pole-star which has guided the organs in the House of Commons. bewildered mariner to a haven of The party, with which you are now rest; the Universities of England identified, would also relieve the have stood in the gap, and unflinch. Bishops from their duties in the other ingly maintained the monarchical House of Parliament. You would institutions of the country, and the of course cease to exact attendatice rights and liberties of the people. at the University church, or compliThey have with equal courage and ance with any ordinances pot purely success resisted the tyranny of a scientific. All should be voluntary. King, and the oppression of a Parlia- Such is the state of things you would ment. Has all this been accidental, see established in a Christian Uni. and the fortuitous result of tempo- versity, and you would get affect to rary coincidence ? Has it not rather believe that the change would not arisen from the principles of Chris- affect the interests of national relitian unity and freedom, which a com- gion.” mon religious training instilled, and What was the reason assigned by a common sense of danger called in- Lord Brougham, and the other foundto action?
ers of the University of London, for " It has been the glory and the the exclusion of Theology? The blessing of this country, that its utter impossibility of teaching docclergy and laity, as they are associa- trines to which all the membergted in station, so are they trained un- who were to be of all sects-could der the same system and within the in conscience conform; and the same walls. No one can doubt, that reason was valid. Therefore all the to this cause is to be attributed, in a students are left to their own religreat degree, the absence of that in- gion; and religion-except in as far fidelity which characterises the edu- as all studies of man and nature cated portion and upper classes of comprehend it—is never mentioned the laity of some other countries. within the walls. There is not even The literary cabal which, some years a chair of Natural Theology, which ago, in a neighbouring country, form- surely there might be, as it might ed something like a regular plan for be taught, one would think, without the destruction of the Christian reli- offending any faith. But Lord gion, included many who stood high Brougham, or the able writer, whoin the ranks of literature and science. ever he may be, of the exposition of You would have Christianity no the priuciples which guided the longer an essential part of the system founders, draws a distinction, which