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Italians who arrived at this port from July 1, 1893,

OBSERVATIONS IN MEXICO. to the end of December, 1895, no less than 33,625

USTICE WALTER CLARK, of the North Carocame to join members of their immediate families.

lina Supreme Court, in his series of Arena If we add this number to the 21,692 above mentioned who had been in the United States before, we get bringing out many interesting facts about Mexico

papers on “ The Land of the Noonday Sun,” is a total of 55,317, or 58 per cent. of the total Ital

and the Mexicans. He has studied, for example, ian immigration, leaving but 39,383 immigrants

the attitude of the Mexican people of to-day toward proper."

the fame of the early Spanish conquerors. This, FAVORABLE TO THE ITALIANS.

it seems, is the modern Mexican view of Cortez: Dr. Senner has a good opinion of Italian immi immense slaughter which this man of blood and

Notwithstanding the great work of Cortez, the grants and believes that they can be readily assimi- iron committed in order to strike terror into the lated. He thinks the real problem, as regards the

subject millions has not been forgotten. A large emigration question, is how to secure a better dis

portion of the Mexican people being of Indian detribution throughout the country of the thousands

scent, not a town, hamlet, or street in all Mexico who come, and to that end he advocates the estab

preserves his fame; no monument in all the republic lishment of a national land and labor clearing house

has been erected to his memory, while on the Paseo, at Ellis Island in connection with the great immi

the great avenue leading to Chapultepec, stands a grant station. As to legislation, he has this to say:

colossal bronze statue of his victim, the last Aztec “ If, in addition to the present law, a moderate

emperor, Cuahtemoc (anglice Guatemozin)-one of educational test should be introduced by Congress,

the revenges of history. Cortez died in Spain, but even the remotest apprehension of danger from

his reinains having been brought back to the counItalian immigration would be forever removed, so

try whose name is forever linked with his fame, long as the enforcement of our immigration laws

reposed here long years, but when Mexico became keeps pace with their letter and spirit. I may be

free these remains had to be secretly removed at pardoned for here repeating what is a matter of

night to prevent their being thrown into the lake, record in the report of the Immigration Investigat

and were carried back to Europe, where they now ing Commission, of which I am a member, that I

rest in the family vault of his descendants, the dukes am most heartily in favor of a reasonable and prac

of Monteleone in Sicily." ticable educational test for male immigrants over sixteen years of age, excepting those who come here to join their immediate families. I do not share the

Justice Clark's impressions of President Diaz are apprehensions of the distinguished and learned Sen

worth reading: ator from Massachusetts, who is at present Chair

A swarthy man, with unmistakable firmness man of the Committee on Immigration and Natu

and executive capacity stamped upon his counteralization, that “a great, a perilous change in the

nance, he has been the providential man for Mexico. very fabric of our race’ is impending from further

A fine organizer, he has news by telegraph laid beimmigration. The evil done in that direction, prior

fore him every morning from his agents in every to the law of 1893 and its strict enforcement under township of the republic. He has been quick to the present administration, can, of course, never be utilize the agency of the railroad and the telegraph, undone; the nation can now secure self protection and by his promptness of action he has for many froin the effects of the heterogeneous influx during

years made brigandage and revolutionary uprisings fifteen years prior to 1893 only by a wholesome re

impossible. Not over given to observing the forms striction of the privilege of naturalization. But I

when the substance of liberty was at stake, his has can safely say that since the enactment of the law

been a “hand of iron in a glove of velvet.' At his of 1893 no substantial number of undesirable im

touch order appeared out of chaos, and hard upon migrants have been permitted to enter the United her footsteps in this fertile land came prosperity and States, and that our public charitable and penal in- contentment. When the people become better edustitutions have not been materially burdened with cated, by experience in the art of self government, the care of such immigrations.

a less governing president may accord better with

the requirements of the presidency, but for the ILLITERACY AS A FACTOR.

needs of the hour Mexico could have found no man Illiteracy, though at present no specific reason better fitted to establish that order and peace which for excluding an immigrant, is nevertheless carefully is the foundation of a nation's prosperity than the considered as a factor in all cases ; although it soldier and statesman, President Porfirio Diaz. He should be stated that some of the most objection- had come down to the next station (Nogales) to able immigrants have been persons well able to read bring an invalid relative for the benefits of this and write.

My principal reason for favoring a delightful clime, and so, having missed him in the moderate educational test is the obvious fact that capital, I met him at Orizaba. From there he went illiteracy is invariably coupled with a low standard on to Vera Cruz, where he was received with great of living which leads to a lowering of wages." rejoicings and display, and thence by sea to the



northern terminus of the Tehuantepec Railroad, ously advises an immediate erection of coast defenses which railroad he wished to inspect. Nothing which shall “ render our principal ports and harbors escapes him, and he is the best posted man in Mexico impregnable.” as to everything which concerns in any way the “ The navy, as Senator Proctor well said in his welfare of the republic.”

recent speech, is essentially offensive, and the logi. cal order in which to develop the naval resources of

a country is first to provide for protection of what GENERAL MILES' IDEA OF WAR.

that country already possesses, and then to prepare

for aggressive operations. Well did he also say, I widely spread ideas in his talk on “ War” in 'the needs of the country appeal to Congress for the June Cosmopolitan. He classes as untenable action in this direction.'” the theory " that, after the manner of our fathers, we could leave the plow in the field and drop the tools at the forge, go out from the workshop and

OUR SCHOOLBOY SOLDIERS. the country house, or from the college hall, and, taking the rifle from the antlers, go forth to war.”

N the July Munsey's there is a pleasant paper The conditions to-day are all different; “it is ma by Whidden Graham on “Our Schoolboy Solchine against machine; steam, electricity and high diers," illustrated with beautiful pictures, showexplosives against steel armaments and steel ing the system of military instruction in the public


schools. This movement, which began only three * The old musket-rifle and the smooth-bore, muz years ago, has developed into a very important dezle-loading cannon have given place to the magazine partment of public school instruction. The psybreech-loading rifles and the Hotchkiss, Colt, chological value of the appeal to the schoolboy Maxim, and Gatling machine guns, some of them fancy through military equipment and mancuvre capable of firing six hundred bullets per minute is very obvious and comes out well in practice. The with a range of two miles; steel rifle-mortars with companies of schoolboy cadets are known as the a range of six miles; high-power guns with a range

American Guard, and the work is under the direc of twelve and fourteen miles, with a weight of pro.

tion of the Grand Army. jectile ranging from six hundred to two thousand

THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL BENEFITS. pounds, and the dynamite-gun capable of throwing five hundred pounds of high explosives more than Mr. Graham outlines the detailed benefits of the two miles." All this ineans that a nation without system as follows: due preparation has little chance against a more “First, as to the physical benefits. The form of far-sighted opponent. Nor is it safe to wait for a drill suggested includes not only the manual of arms decided straining of feelings, for an English mili and marching, but a thorough 'setting up'exertary report in 1883 showed, to every one's surprise, cise, which makes boys erect, active, and alert. A that from 1700 to 1870 less than ten cases occurred free, graceful carriage of the body, the proper posiin which a formal declai tion of war preceded the tion of arms and shoulders, and the use of the limbs first hostilities, while there were over one hundred in motion and repose, are among the things which instances in which offensive operations were begun are thoroughly taught. It is not intended that the with no forinal notice. General Miles goes on to drill shall take the place of athletic sports in the show how much there is to be done by quoting from high schools, but its service in developing the pupils the last reports of the Secretary of the Navy and the of graded schools will be an excellent preparation Secretary of War. The latter asserts the “in for other forms of exercise. Instead of slouching adequacy and impotency” of our seacoast and lake carriage, awkward gait, and careless appearance, defenses to be so evident that the intelligence of the the drill inculcates neatness in person and clothing, country no longer discusses their condition, but a firm step, and a straight and graceful figure. The merely tries to hasten the improvements. The plan slow and heedless are taught quickness of eye and of defense formulated by the Endicott Board, ten ear, head and foot, and in after life will be brighter years ago, contemplated the expenditure by this and stronger for the hours spent in their company's time of nearly $98,000,000, but less than $11,000,000 ranks. have been actually appropriated, and consequently “Still more important are the mental and moral all our harbor improvements have merely made our lessons directly or indirectly given in the course of ports more accessible to a hostile fleet, since the pro military instruction. The boys are taught to be tecting works have not been constructed fast brave, honorable and manly; that they must be enough. Nor is our navy large enough even to take obedient, courteous and respectful; that they must care of itself, the naval establishinents of seven protect the weak, be helpful to their comrades, and foreign powers being each larger than our own, and above all else be truthful and patriotic." Great Britain having 465 battle ships, cruisers and Mr. Graham thinks it is likely that before long torpedo-boats to our 58.

military drill will be established everywhere as part In view of all these facts, General Miles strenu of the American common school system.




EX-MINISTER PHELPS ON ARBITRATION. think our diplomatic corps is in need of is a system N the July Atlantic ex-Minister E. J. Phelps

of permanent under secretaries appointed for life. has a paper entitled “ Arbitration and Our Re

There should be three or four of these, men of lations With England,” in which he discusses the conspicuous ability and attainment. “They would part which unprejudiced tribunals of appeal are apt

become possessed of a complete acquaintance with to play in future diplomatic negotiations and tangles.

all foreign questions, history, precedents, facts, and As far as concerns a scheme of permanent inter

traditions, and entirely versed in the principles of pational arbitration between the United States and

law and the considerations of policy on which they Great Britain, which so many people of the highest depend, as well as in the methods and proprieties quality are now advocating, he is not particularly

of diplomatic procedure. Their counsel and assistoptimistic. “It is not the most promising way to

ance would be invaluable to the overwrought secreestablish friendship to begin to construct machinery tary, and would give to our foreign policy the conto settle expected disputes, nor is the occasion which tinuity, consistency, and sound legal foundation has given rise to the proposition the most fortunate.

without which we cannot hope that it will be sucIt looks too much as if it were anticipated that we

cessful. With such an accomplished staff the Britwould find it desirable in future political exigencies ish Foreign Office is always furnished, and the into make similar attacks, and wish to secure our

coming secretary finds the work ready to his hand selves beforehand against their being resented.”

and is assured of the ground on which he stands.” A CONTRADICTION IN Compulsory arbitration is, in Mr. Phelps' judg

ENGLAND IN SOUTH AFRICA. ment, a contradiction of terms, “since that process must take place necessarily with a voluntary agree

N the Nineteenth Century Mr. G. S. Fort conment incapable of application until the occasion for

tributes an article which he has called “ The it arises. To agree to arbitrate future controversy is

True Motive and Reason of Dr. Jameson's Raid."

Mr. Fort says : one thing ; actually to arbitrate an existing contro. versy is quite another. It is manifest that there “During Mr. Rhodes' last visit to England, after must be many cases, quite impossible to foresee, to

the raid, I know that he was most anxious (to use which such an agreement would not apply, or would

liis own words) to go down to Trafalgar Square and be, by the one side or the other, repudiated as in- proclaim the true motive and reason of the raid.” applicable, and the question whether the case is

THE MAIN OBJECT OF THE RAID. within the agreement would be likely to make more trouble than the case itself. It might almost as

" It was the knowledge that President Kruger well be hoped to prevent disputes by agreeing be

had entered into some secret understanding of a forehand that we will never have them, a practic- political nature with Germany which induced Mr. able method, undoubtedly, if it could only be set Rhodes to reluctantly abandon any further contled at the same time to what disputes the agree

ciliatory policy toward the Transvaal, and determent not to dispute should apply.”

mined him to push on a revolution in Johannes

burg, and to authorize Dr. Jameson's plans for a THE PROPER DOMAIN OF ARBITRATION.

rush to Pretoria. From his point of view, this Only such cases, --a limited class, -where the German-Boer alliance presented such an immediate questions involved are questions of fact depending and imminent danger to Imperial and Afrikander for decision upon evidence, come into the proper interests throughout South Africa that he resolved domain of arbitration. Even in such Mr. Phelps at all hazards to upset the Hollander-German cabal anticipates many and serious obstacles, on account who had clustered around Mr. Kruger. There was of the foreign languages used, the different systems no intention to overthrow an independent Dutch of law and methods of legal thought, the lack of government as such. Nor was the redress of griev. final power of the court and the want of any system ances, or the opposition to schemes of Boer dominion, of procedure or rules of evidence such as are found of primary consideration. The chief purpose ,of indispensable in other tribunals.

Mr. Rhodes' campaign was to prevent Germany as Beyond these cases turning on questions of fact, a rival power from acquiring a predominant politiMr. Phelps considers arbitration as entirely imprac cal status in the Transvaal ; and I state positively ticable, and especially does he oppose the theory that one of the main objects of Dr. Jameson's rush that arbitration can be made a substitute for diplo was to help to secure documentary evidence of this macy. The best that we hope for is that it should secret alliance, which evidence was believed on re. be an adjunct to diplomacy. “For wise diplomacy liable authority to be in possession of President is a great deal better than arbitration, and in nine Kruger in Pretoria.” teen cases out of twenty can do without it."

II.-Mr. Rhodes as the False Prophet of THE NEED OF PERMANENT OFFICIALS.

Imperialism. So far Mr. Phelps is only destructive of what he A clever and earnest article is that which“ W. considers impracticable theories. What he does S.," a new writer, has contributed to the June

Westminster, under the title “ The New Islam and wealth, with the Transvaal. But if President Kruger its Prophet.” “W. S.” says :

intends merely to use the Germans for his own ends, * As of old there rang through the world a cry he leaves out of calculation the purpose of their of one declaring, “There is but one God, and Ma- alliance with him." homet is His Prophet,' so to-day in our ears sounds

WHAT MR. RHODES RISKED, AND WHY. the rallying cry of the new Islam, “There is but one Empire and Cecil Rhodes is its prophet.' This He recalls the repeated instances in which Mr. may sound exaggerated to some, but it sums up in

Rhodes' bold initiative and far seeing patriotism a phrase the sentiments of many who believe in the

had foiled the German designs in South Africa. immense future of the English speaking race. It is,

He recalls how Mr. Rhodes, and Mr. Rhodes almost however, fatal to link together, as of equal im- alone, stood in the way of the realization of Presi. portance with an idea world embracing and eter. dent Kruger's schemes : nally true, an individual who, of necessity, is limited “ They are a very real danger and serious obstacle and only partially true at best. This was proved to President Kruger's scheme of a united and inunmistakably to be the case with the prophet of dependent Dutch South Africa under the headship Islam, and history is, unfortunately, only too likely of the Transvaal, and equally an obstacle to the to repeat itself in regard to Mr. Cecil Rhodes." German South African Republic, which would be

The writer proceeds to point out various points of too likely to succeed to, if it did not anticipate, analogy between the Arabian Apostle and the

President Kruger's United Dutch Dream.

I am creator of Charterland, and says :

no advocate of the Chartered Company. I have no " But if Mr. Rhodes possesses many of the strong knowldge of its management in England ; I do not characteristics of the Arabian prophet, he also

understand its balance sheets, I hold none of its shares with him several of his besetting sins. The shares. But I see what any independent observer chief of these is a too whole-hearted acceptance of

can see, that it has been a chief instrument to exthe Jesuitical doctrine that any method is right in tend British Empire in South Africa, that it will a good cause.

continue, so long as Mr. Rhodes is at its head, a “ In both cases this baneful heresy was a gradual powerful barrier to German or Boer intrigue, and a growth destroying much which was good in the useful stop-gap till the colony of Rhodesia is suffimen, and doing much injury to the ideas for which ciently developed and populated for self-governthey stand. As in the latter part of Mahomet's life

ment." we recognize a deterioration and the acceptance of

IV.-Why Not Buy Up the Chartered a somewhat lower standard of ethics, so we can

Company ? see in the career of Mr. Rhodes the same degenera

The editor of the National Review, who, be it retion.

membered, is the son of a Radical Unionist-Ad. “ His utter reliance upon the power of money,

miral Maxse—and the son-in-law of Lord Salisbury, and a certain unscrupulousness, and a deficiency

takes up his parable very strongly against the Charin ethical development, has done much to undo his

tered Company and Mr. Rhodes in his chronique of work of the last ten or fifteen years Elaborate

the month. His idea is to buy up the Chartered and plausible apologies may be made for his recent

Company and send Mr. Rhodes about his business : action in the Transvaal, and for his massing of

“ It is true that the East Africa Company came troops on its frontier--for there is no manner of

financially to grief, but there can't be much mardoubt but that he took an active part both in the

gin between the South Africa Company and liquimovement in Johannesburg and in Charterland

dation, and if its shareholders were paid off at par but the fact remains that morally it is indefensible.

they would receive very handsome treatment." It is equally so from the point of view of policy." 111.-What President Kruger Is Really After.

V.-Emancipate the High Commissione:'. There is a powerful and well informed article in In the National Review, Mr. Arnold Forster, writthe Fortnightly Review, on the subject of Mr. ing on South Africa, lays down the law in that oracRhodes and the Transvaal. It is anonymous, being ular fashion which always suggests that, although signed “ An Imperialist.” “Imperialist," whoever the sun and the moon both go wrong, the old clock he may be, points out very clearly that, while of Jedburgh can never go wrong, and a very good President Kruger is endeavoring to use the Ger old clock in his way Mr. Arnold Forster is. The mans, they, on their part, are making a cat's paw House of Commons and the press, it seems, have of him. “ Imperialist ” says :

utterly failed even to express the views of nine“ It has been assumed by some writers that Presi- tenths of the English people, for they beg the quesdent Kruger wants to forward the establishment of tion as if you must be either for Mr. Kruger or this German Empire. I do not think this is true. He for Mr. Rhodes. He says : does not want the Germans as masters ; he merely * The real facts of the situation were, I believe, wishes to use their assistance to enable him to estab- correctly and epigrammatically summed up by one lish an independent and United Dutch South Africa, of my colleagues in the House of Commons, who, the headship of which would be, in virtue of its after listening for some time to the recent debate,

remarked to me, “Well I don't agree with a word of this ; I can't stand the Chartered Company, and I don't like the Boers.' This is a true view of the situ. ation, as it presents itself to most Englishmen; and my friend, I am convinced, spoke as the representative of two thirds of the House and of nine-tenths of the country.”

A REAL GOVERNOR-GENERAL. What he proposes to be done in this case is to terminate the arrangement by which the Governorship of the Cape is united with the High Commissionership of South Africa. What is to be done is to “ appoint a real High Commissioner for South Africa, not an officer who is the servant of the Cape government first, and of anybody else afterward, still less a gentleman who, like the present administrator of the Chartered Company's territories, is nominally in the service of a not very reputable limited company ; but a real GovernorGeneral, whom all Africa, friendly or otherwise, would know to be the representative of the British Empire, ready to protect the interests of the Em. pire against all comers.

duct of Mr. Cecil Rhodes or his colleagues has been in accordance with sound principles of finance. The only question which Englishmen have to consider is, whether the contract entered into between the British Government and the Company has been conducive to the interest of the British public. It may, I think, suggest some answer to the question, to show what the company has already accomplished out of its own resources and by its own unassisted efforts."

SUNK A MILLION WITH NO RETURN. From the balance sheets of the company he extracts the statistics showing that in the development of their Charterland, this private company has sunk very nearly a million of capital without at present receiving any return :

“It is all-important to my purpose to show that the company has spent money liberally, if not lavishly, in fulfilling the objects for which the charter was granted. Let me try and recapitulate in as few words as possible what has been accomplished with the money thus freely spent. Rhodesia comprises an area larger than France and Germany put to. gether. Barely six years ago this immense area was an almost unknown country, occupied by savage tribes and wild beasts, and in the whole of which there were probably not a score of white men to be found. Already the country is traversed in every direction by telegraph wires. From the east and from the south railways are being pushed on into its borders, and the new lines have made such progress that within two or three years there will be unbroken railway communication between Beira, Fort Salisbury, Bulawayo, Kimberley and Cape Town. The power of the Matabele king, his indunas and his impis have been shattered, and a settled government under British courts, British officials and British laws has been substituted for the cruel tyranny of Lobengula and his chiefs. Towns have been created at Salisbury, Umtali and Bulawayo.”

VI.-A French Tribute to Mr. Rhodes. Mr. Lionel Decle contributes to the Notional Review a very interesting article entitled “Two Years in Rhodesia." He spent two years in traveling over Charterland from end to end. He sums up his impressions of what he saw as follows :

• The country is one of the richest, and the most diversely rich, that I ever visited. Its administration, taking it as a whole, is conducted by as singleminded and hard-working men as I ever came across, and I say this, bearing in mind that I have lived for years among the civil servants of India. I never saw a better ordered community than the white inhabitants of Rhodesia, whether in an old country or a new ; keenly desirous to succeed themselves, they are yet ever ready to lend a hand to their neighbors. Of their splendid self-reliance and self. devotion I can say no more in praise than is already written in the history of the two wars with the Matabele. As for the founder of this country, Mr. Cecil Rhodes, I dare to think him by far the greatest man that Africa has yet given to the world, and one of the greatest men of this century.”

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VII.-What the Chartered Company Has Done

For the Empire. Mr. Edward Dicey, in the Fortnightly Review, sets forth with plain facts and figures the services which the Chartered Company has conferred upon the Empire. His object in the article is to show : as briefly and as clearly as I can, the practical use that the British South Africa Company has made hitherto of its Imperial concession.

“ To the British public, as a body, it is a matter of absolute indifference whether the shares of the Chartered Company are likely to prove a lucrative investment to their holders, or whether the con


Contemporary Review for June a very thoughtful and weighty article setting forth the reasons which led him to deplore the policy of the new English Education bill. With its provisions in detail he does not deal. He concentrates his attention upon the general policy which is admitted alike by friends and foes to form the essence and soul of the bill :

WHAT THE BILL SIGNIFIES. Dr. Fairbairn maintains that : “ The bill signifies that there has coine upon us, in a new form and under altered conditions, the old question as to the function of the state in religion, and as to the modes in which effect is to be given to its will in the schools of the people. This is the real issue that is raised. If the policy which this bill embodies be

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