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of crystallization are frequently contaminated First effect an intimate mixture of the with dust and other foreign matter which active ingredients and vehicle in a mortar, by passes freely through cloth and paper filters; forming them into a uniform mass. Then they may be readily clarified by adding paper transfer the mass to a graduated tile and dipulp, which effectually removes the fine parti- vide into the required number of equal parts, cles of dirt from the boiling liquid, by envelop- which are then properly shaped with the ing them in its own fiber and retaining them on fingers. the strainer.
11. How would you proceed to make supClarification of liquids may also be effected positories by means of the mold method ? by fermentation. Fruit juices, as a rule, con- First weigh out sufficient cacao butter to tain certain principles which tend to render just fill the molds, and place about two-thirds them cloudy and unsightly, but which can be of it over a water-bath in a capsule or casserole. removed by fermentation at a moderate tem- While this is heating weigh out the medicinal perature, the matter thus separated settling to ingredients and incorporate them thoroughly the bottom; and the clear liquid may be drawn with the remainder of the cacao butter. Then off by means of a siphon or otherwise.
remove the melted cacao butter from the 6. State four ways of manufacturing medi- water-bath and allow the contents to cool to cated water.
95° F., or lower. Then the medicated cacao (a) By agitating the medicinal ingredient butter, now rendered soft by friction, is added with cold water.
to that in the capsule, where a little stirring (6) By passing gases through water. with a spatula or glass rod will render the (c) By distillation.
whole liquid and homogeneous. Finally the (d) By triturating the medicinal ingredients fluid is poured into the molds, which have with purified talc, and then mixing with cold previously been chilled, and the molds place:l distilled water and filtering.
on ice until the suppositories have hardened. 7. Name an official water made by each of 12. What is (a) Dover's powder, (b) the processes stated in the question.
Blaud's pills, (c) laudanum, (d) Fowler's so(a) Bitter almond water.
lution? (b) Ammonia water.
(a) Powder of ipecac and opium. (c) Stronger rose water.
(b) Pills of ferrous carbonate. (d) Peppermint water.
(c) Tincture of opium. 8. Compare a pill, point for point, with a (d) Solution of potassium arsenite. troche.
13. Discuss the practice of making tinctures, A trochę is a lozenge composed of medicinal infusions and decoctions from fluidextracts. ingredients mixed into a paste with sugar and At the 1915 meeting of the American Pharmucilage and dried. A pill is a mass of medi- maceutical Association, Professor W. L. Scocinal matter, made with a variety of excipients, ville, of Detroit, read a paper which contained round or ovoid in form. A troche is intended the results of a three years' series of tests conto be gradually dissolved in the mouth and ducted in order to ascertain the relative values slowly swallowed, producing a demulcent of tinctures prepared by the official process effect, while a pill is intended for internal ad- and those made by diluting fluidextracts. It ministration. Troches are uncoated and of was found that tinctures prepared from fluidthe same composition throughout, while pills extracts are equally as good as those made in are generally coated and may consist of two accordance with the U. S. P. method, and in or more layers of dissimilar composition. A some cases are better. Thus it would seem pill should weigh, exclusive of coating, from that there can be no valid objection to making one to five grains. Troches may be consider- tinctures from fluidextracts, if the druggist so ably heavier. Troches as a rule contain the desires. active ingredients in more diluted form than Infusions and decoctions, however, differ do pills.
materially from fluidextracts, not only in 9. Name two suppository bases.
strength, but in taste and appearance, anal Cacao butter and glycerinated gelatin.
oftentimes in action; this is because quite dif10. How would you proceed to make sup- ferent principles are extracted from drugs by positories by hand ?
water than those which are obtained by alco
alcoholic menstruum. The difficulty is over-
Tinct. belladonnæ fol........4 fiuidrachms.
Syrupi tolutanus q. s. ad.....4 fluidounces.
holic liquids. In infusions and decoctions only the water-soluble principles are desired, and a diluted fluidextract is never a proper substitute.
14. Discuss acacia as an emulsifying agent.
Acacia is probably the best emulsifying agent for general use. Emulsions made with it are attractive in appearance, palatable, and permanent. It has a wide range of emulsifying power. Primary emulsions made with acacia will stand considerable dilution. If rules are followed carefully even a novice can produce a satisfactory emulsion with acacia.
15. Give a rule for making an emulsion with acacia.
For one part of dry acacia use four parts of fixed oil (or two parts of volatile oil) and twice as much water as gum.
16. Name three emulsifying agents, not including acacia.
Yolk of egg, condensed milk, and blanched almonds.
17. How can camphor, menthol, or salol be put into an emulsion?
By first dissolving the camphor, menthol or salol in a fixed oil and then emulsifying the resulting solution.
18. Write out the following in full English: (a) b. i. d., (b) p. r. n., (c) s. a., (d) a. C., (c) dieb. alt., (f) N. F., (9) ft. collyr., (h) coch. parv., (i) non. rep.
(a) Twice a day, (b) as occasion arises, or as needed, (c) according to art, (d) before eating, (e) every other day, (f) National Formulary, . (g) make an eye lotion, (h) a teaspoonful, (i) do not repeat.
19. How should the following be stored: (a) Spirit of nitrous ether, (b) hydrogen peroxide, (c) ferrous sulphate, (d) syrups, (e) biological products.
(a) In small, well-stoppered, dark ambercolored bottles in a cool place, remote from lights or fire.
(b) In well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles in a cool place.
(c) In well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles so that the crystals may not effloresce.
(d) In small, tightly-stoppered bottles in a cool place.
(e) In a refrigerator.
20. What difficulty is encountered in the manufacture of aromatic spirit of ammonia, and how can this difficulty be overcome ?
A precipitation sometimes occurs due to the insolubility of ammonium carbonate in the
The compound syrup of squill contains acetic acid which, when it comes in contact with the ammonium carbonate, liberates carbon dioxide. Care must be taken not to cork the bottle before effervescence ceases. As there is an excess of ammonium carbonate present which is not converted by the acid, the atropine sulphate and the tincture of belladonna are likely to be affected, resulting in a precipitation of the alkaloids. If dispensed the prescription should bear a shake label.
22. Write out a four-ounce prescription so that each teaspoonful will contain approximately 1/60 grain of strychnine sulphate, 2 grains of quinine sulphate, and 1 grain of ferric ci ferric citrate.
There are 32 teaspoonfuls in four 'fluidounces. Therefore the following will answer: Strychnine sulphate.........
12 grain (32/60 grain to be exact).
..............1 fluidounce. Syrup q. s. ad...............4 Aluidounces. The citric acid is used to bring the strychnine sulphate and quinine sulphate into solution in part of the water. The sodium citrate is added to the ferric citrate, dissolved in the remainder of the water, in order to prevent decomposition of the iron salt.
23. How is syrup of ferrous iodide made?
Introduce 12.5 grammes of iron (in the form of fine bright wire, cut into small pieces) into a flask of thin glass, having a capacity of about 500 Cc., add to it 150 Cc. of distilled water, and afterwards 41.5 grammes of iodine. Shake the mixture occasionally, checking the
reaction, if necessary, by the affusion of cold 31—that is to say, 10 fluid parts of acid (sp. water, and, when the solution has acquired a gr. 1.82) and 31 fluid parts of water when greenish color, and has lost the odor of iodine, mixed will give 41 fluid parts of a mixture heat it to boiling and add at once fifty grammes having a specific gravity of 1.20. of sugar. When this has dissolved, filter the 128 fluidounces (1 gallon)=41 Auid parts. solution into 550 grammes of sugar contained One part=1/41 of 128 or 3.122 fluidounces. in a porcelain dish. Rinse the flask and iron 10 parts=31.22 fluidounces of H2SO. (sp. wire with 125 Cc. of distilled water and pass gr. 1.82) required. the washings through the filter into the sugar. 31 parts=96.78 fluidounces of water reStir the mixture with a porcelain or wooden quired. spatula, heating the liquid on a water-bath Therefore, to make one gallon of storage until complete solution is effected, and, having battery fluid (H,SO, sp. gr. 1.20) add 31.22 passed the syrup through a clean muslin fluidounces of H2SO. (sp. gr. 1.82) cautiously strainer into a tared bottle, add 20 Cc. of di- and slowly to 96.78 parts of water, and when luted hypophosphorous acid, and sufficient dis- the mixture has cooled make up any loss in tilled water to make the product weigh 1000 volume by adding water q. s. to make 1 gallon. grammes.
25. Contrast as to alkaloidal strength, dose, 24. How would you make up a gallon of and medicinal action, tincture of opium with storage battery fluid (H2SO4, sp. gr. 1.20) fluidextract of nux vomica. from official H.SO,, sp. gr. 1.82.
Tincture of opium represents 12 to 12.5 By alligation we get:
grammes of crystallized morphine in 1000 Cc., 1.20 (sp. gr.. desired)
while fluidextract of nux vomica represents 10 grammes of strychnine in 1000 Cc. The
average dose of tincture of opium is 8 minims, 1.82 (sp. gr. of H2SO4) 1.00 (sp. gr. of water) which is eight times the average dose of fluid
extract of nux vomica. In action tincture of 20 62
opium is a stimulant narcotic while fluidDividing 20 and 62 by greatest common extract of nux vomica is used as a tonic and divisor (in order to simplify) gives 10 and as a systemic stimulant.
(To be continued.)
PROJECTED HOME FOR THE MASSACHUSETTS COLLEGE.-This dignified and imposing structure has been designed for the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy, and it will be a real tribute to the calling to have such a building devoted to pharmaceutical education. The location will be at the corner of Brookline and Longwood Avenues, near the group of classic buildings erected some years ago to house the Harvard Medical School. The Massachusetts College has an endowment of $240,000, but no part of the principal will be used for the present purpose. A large portion of the money will be secured from the sale of the old home of the college, and the remainder is being raised by a vigorous campaign now under way. The new building will cost about $200,000 apart from the site.
to be filled in with ordinary school crayons, SELECTIONS
the best and neatest design to receive a box of candy each week or every month. And I
would get the candy manufacturer to donate ADVERTISING THE DRUG STORE. the candy, because in return for it I would give Advertising does not necessarily mean bill- him an advertisement in my window. boards, street-cars, newspapers, blank walls, I would concentrate on the doctors. I would circulars, programmes, letters, or any one try to find out when a doctor had a birthday. specific thing, but advertising means anything and every year I would send him a birthday that attracts the attention of one person or of card or any little thing to get his good-will, a million people to your business or to you and all the time I would realize the value of personally as the proprietor of that business; advertising and if the retail druggist could only realize Sometimes I wonder if it is because the drugthat almost every waking hour he is advertis- gist, as a rule, is better educated than men in ing or misadvertising his business, he would other retail lines that he apparently is not the pay more attention to the importance of cor- same efficient business man. The average rect advertising.
neighborhood druggist will tell you that he is You have been advertising from the very overworked; that the public imposes on him; first day that you opened your door. Every
that people come in to buy stamps and postal package of goods that goes out of your ship
cards; and yet a retailer in any other line will ping department is an advertisement for you; tell you that all he wants is to get the people every package that leaves your store is an ad- into his store and he will take a chance on sellvertisement for you; the clothes you wear; the ing them. And in most cases he does.things you say; the manner in which you treat J. THOMAS LYONS, Assistant Advertising your fellow men: the manner in which you Manager of the Baltimore News, before the walk down the street are all advertisements Baltimore Branch of the A. Ph. A. in the truest sense of the word.
If an efficient advertising man were to be called by a neighborhood druggist and told to
DRUGGISTS SHOULD KNOW. do what he could to increase the profits of the I venture to say that there are comparatively business, the first step, no doubt, would be to few men who have finished their education on see if three or four dollars spent for white the subject of necessary store accounting. paint would not be a good advertisement in For instance, how many druggists make it the druggist's window. If there was anything a practice to analyze the accounts at sufficient about the exterior of the building that might and regular intervals to enable us to know that create the impression in the mind of the all of our legitimate expenses are being met passer-by that carelessness and slipshoci out of the business, including the value of the methods prevailed within, that condition would time that we, as owners of our stores, are puthave to be corrected.
ting in the business; including the interest The interior of the store often has an un- charges on the capital that we have invested; conscious influence either favorable or un- that we have in the selling price a sufficient favorable on the prospective customer, and allowance for overhead charges; that such and you cannot get correct store atmosphere unless such a figure is or is not a proper allowance the things therein are right.
for overhead, and that we are obtaining a surThe average neighborhood druggist cannot plus of so many per cents ? advertise in newspapers profitably because he Do we make it a practice to mark our goods pays for the total circulation of the paper, and accordingly, with a sufficient margin to accomcan hardly cash in on more than 5 per cent of plish these things? the circulation. Many druggists have tried to I wish I had time to read you an article that build up a telephone business, but this has appeared in the New York Times of Decemoften proved disastrous because the cost of ber 5. The Wholesale Men's Furnishing Assodelivery takes the profit from the sale.
ciation found that too many men were failing If I were a neighborhood druggist I would to discount their bills, and that there were too promote children's contests, outlined pictures many receiverships and cases of retail busi
conducted d Adjustmend made
nesses being conducted unprofitably. They Here is another idea-a modification of the formed an Advisory and Adjustment Com- much-used, nowadays, Candy Special. Six mittee, meeting every Tuesday, and made weeks ago we contracted for 40 pounds of fine arrangements for all cases of slow-pay ac- chocolates in pound boxes, regular retail price counts to be reported by the retail merchants, 50 cents. We then advertised this as special and they have found many cases in which at 39 cents, Saturday only. helpful suggestions have resulted in putting Before 9:30 P.M. every pound was gone. the business on a paying basis, so that the mer- During six weeks we cleaned up over 250 chants could discount their bills and obtain pounds of candy, the average cost being 22 loans from the banks, where otherwise that cents by buying quantity deals. would be impossible. I am quite sure that a Frequently customers came in and our stock committee of “Business Doctors” for the drug was gone. They bought other and higher business which would seriously consider this priced packages. For instance, I myself had situation and put active plans in force would three calls last Saturday for one of our be of benefit to the business.-J. E. ALDRED, Specials, and sold all three of the customers before the Baltimore Branch of the A. Ph. A. regular lines—one a dollar-and-a-half box,
and the other two 80-cent boxes.
We have also run several five-pound, reguLETTERS
lar $2.50 boxes, special at $1.98, and cleaned
them up on our sales. AN AUTO-TRUCK AND CANDY SPECIALS.
Now if we can do these things in this small To the Editors:
community, why can't the same things be done
anywhere? It simply takes willingness, an Quite naturally all druggists are looking for
optimistic outlook, and well-directed effort. new ideas/ideas that will pull business. I am
Every druggist has all this stored away somegoing to suggest one or two.
where in his anatomy. We bought a little auto-truck, 6 feet long,
Last year we opened hot drinks at our founfully equipped with rubber tires and all ready
tain. It has paid. We are now serving hot for some bright, aggressive kid. We then had
lemonade, malted drinks, coffee, tea, and sandseveral thousand coupons printed and ran an
wiches. We put out an average of three dozen ad. in our local paper outlining our Auto
sandwiches a day. Truck Contest.
In conclusion let me say that the BULLETIN We conducted this contest for a period of
is certainly the home of ideas-ideas solid in four months. With every five-cent cash pur
real meat. I know, for I have covered conchase we gave a coupon. During some weeks
siderable territory lately, and when the BULwe advertised certain specials; for instance, on
LETIN is mentioned its name always commands school supplies during a stated period we gave
instant attention from the wide-awake drugdouble coupons. In our candy department and
J. Earl TAYLOR, Ph.G. at our soda fountain we gave double coupons from the beginning of the contest.
Gridley, 111. During the last two weeks we offered double coupons on all paid-up accounts. Several
WANTED-AN EXPRESSION OF PRICE. “dead ones” responded. When our contest closed, December 1, we
Ive To the Editors: required all coupons to be wrapped in pack
Here is a prescription which we compounded ages of hundreds, with the name of the con- not long ago: testant placed on each package. The con
.242 drachms. testants were required to be in the store by 8
...4 drachms. Orthoform
..........2/2 drachms. o'clock on the evening of December 2, when
Ointment of zinc oxide, q.s. ad...6 ounces. the results would be made known. This
M. et ft. ungt. drew a crowd, for some 25 or 30 contestants were hot on the trail of that auto-truck.
We would like to have BULLETIN readers The total number of coupons footed 80,100. tell us the proper price to charge for the foreThe entire cost of the contest was not over going.
FRANK DIEDEN. $35.00.