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carried, it means that we are only at the beginning of a period of revolutionary legislation in religion, where the state will have to set its hand to the gravest of all conflicts, the suppression of the most sensitive yet obstinate of all forces, the tender conscience."

ITS HOSTILITY TO BOARD SCHOOLS. The policy of the bill is distinctly hostile to the national system of education which was established twenty-five years ago. Its hostility is shown not merely by the increased subsidy to the denomina tional schools, so much as by the extent to which it handicaps the national system.

“The policy of the new bill aims rather at substituting a denominational for a national system of education, both elementary and secondary ; or, more correctly, at subjecting the national system to such burdens and disabilities as will make the denominational the easier and more welcome alternative."


To what cause are we to attribute this strange attempt to put back the hands of the clock ? Dr. Fairbairn has no hesitation to attribute the reactionary policy of the bill to the new and portentous growth of priesthood among the Anglican clergy. The English parson is no longer an English gentleman ; he is a member of the clerical cause, a priest, whose head has been completely turned by the doctrine of Apostolic succession. Dr. Fairbairn says :

“ As a direct consequence of the intensity and completeness with which this idea has possessed and penetrated the clerical mind, we have the sudden and extraordinary development of those clerical claims which, though but lately mocked, are now coming to be felt and even feared as aggressive and controlling forces in the state. The claims which Englishmen used to regard as the exclusive and pernicious note of the Roman priesthood have become the familiar commonplaces of the Anglican ; and the political action which we were accustomed to conceive as characteristic of the one priesthood is finding a correspondent expression in the political conduct of the other ; and the courses and changes of the times have supplied them with the very occasions which were the opportunities needed for the exercise of their new energies and the embodi. ment of their new ideas. What we are face to face with is a policy which is to make the clergy the most permanent, the most widely distributed, and the most potent factor in the education of our people.”

tional schools remains, there is no escape from our religious differences being carried over into civil contests, or from our elections becoming occasions for high debate as to the rights of churches, the claiins of the clergy, the use of formularies and the persons that are qualified to teach them. The humiliation of relig. ion and the embitterinent of our civil and political life seem to me the things which this bill is most fitted to create. And all this in order to secure that the living clergymen have a sort of semi-legalized place as the test and standard of orthodoxy. There never was a more fatuous policy or a standard at once so arbitrary and so variable. It exalts the class at the expense of the nation, and means that Anglican priests are better guardians of faith and religion than the English people. And of all forms of personal controversy this, as to the rights and privileges of a special order, is the meanest and most miserable. And, in these controversies, will not education be sure to suffer ?"

Points For Substantial Amendment. In the Nineteenth Century for June, Sir J. G. Fitch contributes an article of fifteen pages entitled “Some Flaws in the Education Bill." His remarks are not suggested by any party or political bias, but concern solely the interests of the children, and the perinanent, efficient and progressive development of the schools. There is a great deal of criticism which cannot be noticed at length ; but he has summarized what he has got to say in the following passage :

In an Education bill for 1896, which is designed to supplement and in large measure to repeal the great act of 1870, it is reasonable to look for some sign of zeal for educational expansion and for the intellectual improvement of the nation. From this point of view it must be owned that the measure now before Parliament is somewhat disappointing. It is not a very coherent bill. Its parts do not fit well together. There is no evidence in it of any clearly conceived educational purpose. Some of its provisions may prove of much value. The raising of the age of exemption from school attendance to twelve years, the transfer of the educational inspection of Reformatory and Poor Law schools to the Education Deparment, and the creation of a popular body constituted on the lines suggested by the Secondary Commission, with power to superintend the provision of secondary schools and to establish due rapport between them and the primary schools, are all measures from which great public benefit may be derived. But on the three points here submitted for consideration there is room for substantial amendment in the bill during its prog ress through committee. They are :

1. The maintenance of the power of the central department to preserve and to improve the standard of educational efficiency.

"2. The adoption of reasonable safeguards for the economical and fruitful application of large additional grants from the Treasury.


The immediate result of this attempt to use the County Council for the purpose of making our new priesthood supreme in the national schools will be to make every County Council contest a conflict between church and dissent :

“So long, then, as this question of the denomina


"3. The need of measures for allaying, rather than they wished to learn the truth incognito like James accentuating, religious rivalries and strife.

of Scotland they could not do so, for photography “Without some reconsideration of these three has everywhere preceded them.” vital matters the bill will inevitably create more “Quida" proceeds to discourse upon the vulgardifficulties than it will solve, and Parliament will ity of the royal tastes, and upon royalty's failure to have lost a great opportunity of placing our system promote art, architecture, literature, sports or manof national education on an enduring and popular ners by any exercise of wise discrimination or judibasis.”

cious patronage.


“ It will be alleged that the royal taste is deHE brilliant English writer “Quida,” whose formed and misled by the public taste, but if royalty

true name is Louise de la Ramée, has an article be incapable of controlling and elevating public in the June Forum entitled “Ego, et Rex Meus: A taste it pronounces at once its own effeteness. The Study of Royalty.” A more caustic and at the same government of Russia is the worst in the whole time a more convincing arraignment of royalty as world; it is a brutal absolutism founded on a rotan effete and pernicious institution has never been ting bog of corruption; the present fainily of Ro. written. There has come to be a fashion lately, even manoff is not ancient; its blood is chiefly German; it in republican countries like the United States, of has neither historical nor national interest or value. dealing gently with the survival of monarchy in the Yet we were told, a few months ago, that the hope European countries; and that which our sturdy re of this dynasty being continued in the direct line publican ancestors viewed with abhorrence and dis sent thrills of ecstasy through every Russian breast approval we have come to look upon with easy from the ice of the Baltic to the palms of Crimea. tolerance if not with respect and approval.

If the Russian moujik indeed extracted any satis“Quida” takes the ground in this article that the faction from that prospect we are only once more chief interest in the study of royalty does not so reminded of the axiom that every people has the much lie in its political influences, good or bad, as government it deserves. The extinction of the in its social influences; and she demonstrates ex Romanoff line might be considered a cause for rehaustively that the social influences of royalty in joicing; that its continuance should have been reEurope are disgustingly bad. Royalty in England garded as such proves that the human race is as yet makes a nation of snobs and sycophants out of a na far behind in intelligence the bison and buffalo who tion that otherwise would be sturdy and self-respect select for their leader the wisest, strongest, best of ing. The British nation pretended to be plunged all the herd.” into grief at the death of the Duke of Clarence in All the trivialities of royalty, declares our author, 1892, and pretended to be convulsed with joy at the become ludicrous in an age in which they have lost marriage of the Duke of York in 1893. “Such such symbolism as they once possessed. counterfeit sentiments, whether in the press or in

OR THE HOHENZOLLERNS. the multitude, are unwholesome. They make hypocrites of a nation and waste the people's best emo “ The Emperor William likes to change his unitions on shams." We cannot quote much from this form half a dozen times a day, and has, it is said, article, but it is packed full of truth, and of inci

more uniforms than there are days in the year. dents and circumstances which illustrate the truth. From this point of view, but from this alone, his

continual nominations to the command of foreign A PITIABLE POSITION.

regiments can be of use to him; and to the guild of “ The office which royalty might have fulfilled the army-tailors. They show perhaps more phil. with unexampled facilities for influence in it would osophy than they are given credit for in supporting have been that of arbiter elegans ; royalty might it. Human nature must seem to them a very poor, have made manners, society, conversation, recep mean, truckling thing; a creeping thing of pliant tion, fashion, all feel and follow its example. But spine, oiled tongue, and insatiable appetite for it has never had anywhere the wit, the grace or the favors. Only an immense vanity like that of Wiloriginality necessary for the office.

liam II. of Hohenzollern can make them content with “Royal people are much to be pitied. No one themselves or with their worshipers. ever tells them the truth; they are surrounded by Royalty in its adversity may arouse great qualpersons who all desire to please, that they may ities in its adherents, but in its prosperity its moral profit by them. It is impossible for them to be cer influence is entirely mischievous on all who come tain of the sincerity of any friend. They are never under its influence. It generates subserviency, hyalone, and they can scarcely escape in their sleep pocrisy, and egotism; and it suffers itself from the from the stare of watching eyes, and the strained contrecoup of these creatures of its loins. ears of eaves-droppers. They probably never in in a minor degree does every courtier; statesmen, their lives get a genuine answer to any question who ought not to be courtiers become so perforce, to which they may put. There is always a young the injury of their character. That a Chatham Raleigh to throw a cloak over any gutter; and if should have to bow in silence before a Guelph is an

And so

raisers of horses call“ breeding in and in " cannot be overrated, and yet seems scarcely to attract any attention from the nations over which they reign. The royal races of Europe are almost one race, and that German. They form one large clan, not by any means mutually attached yet with enough preponderant likeness to constitute a solidarity of family interest as against public liberty. Mental and physical diseases are common to them, and so also are certain attitudes moral and political. They are almost always great feeders, and tenacious of frivolous and arbitrary precedence and distinction."


unjust penalty attached to office. That a Bismarck should have to thank a Hohenzollern for his favors is a degradation to humanity in its highest intellectual form.

ENGLISH SNOBBERY. Insincerity is a disease which eats through and rots all social life, but it reaches its apogee in courts. It is said that Disraeli on being asked how he had managed so completely to fascinate and subjugate his royal mistress, replied to the indiscreet question: “I never contradict !" It is of course the courtier's most essential obligation. The salt strong sea breezes of contradiction must never blow away the cobwebs from royal brains. As all must lose to them at cards, so all must agree with them in speech. It were difficult to decide to which this is the more injurious, to themselves or to their subjects.

Courts are the field in which the bacteria of snobbism are most readily propagated. Fulsome sycophancy is sown by it broadcast like the murrain. In the recent nuptials of the Duke of York a dignitary of the English Church was not ashamed to write an ode calling such a marriage “ The Fairest Scene in all Creation !" Could sickly silly hyperbole swell itself to more nauseous folly ? To make presents on these nuptials dockyard laborers, longshoremen, river boatmen, village peasants, me. chanics, miners, parish school children, cottagers, weavers, carpenters, bricklayers--the whole, in a word, of the poorest and hardest worked members of the nation-were bidden, in terms which admitted of no denial, to give up a day's wage or the price of a week's meals to assist in purchasing some necklace, bracelet, or other jewel for a young lady who is to be the future wearer of the crown jewels of Great Britain ! And there was not heard one single voice of all those who could speak with authority to protest against this abominable farce, this iniquitous extortion, this robbery of the poorest to enrich those made richest through the nation ! Verily the populace is a too meek and long-suffering creature.”

PHYSICAL DEFECTS OF THE ROYAL BREED. “Nay, it perhaps speaks well for their good sense and selfrestraint that sovereigns are not more often and more ungovernably mattoid. Given their consanguinity in marriage, their hereditary nervous maladies, their imprisonment in a narrow circle, their illimitable opportunity of self-indulgence, the monotony, the inquisitiveness, the publicity, which lie like curses on their lives, the maddening interference and investigation of their physicians, -we must give them honor that they remain as entirely sane as some of them do and retain tastes as natural and impulses as good as many of them show. They are moreover heavily and cruelly handicapped by the alliances which they are compelled to form, and the hereditary diseases which they are thus forced to receive and transmit. The fatal corporeal and mental injury of royal families due to what the

“There are two little boys now conspicuous in Europe, one is eleven and the other eight years of age; one is a crown prince and the other a crowned king; the former is the most dreary and self-conscious little prig that ever was drilled in pipeclay and buckram, and the other is still a high spirited child, bold, saucy, and lovable; but both the Prussian Kronprinz and the Spanish Rey Niño have already but one thought in their young heads: War. The pompous little German lieutenant only lives for dreams of strategy, maneuvres, kriegspiel, and importance of buttons, the dignity of stripes and grades, the superiority of gunpowders and chemicals: and the bright Niño climbs on Marshal Campos' knees and begs to be told how Moors were killed in Morocco, Cubans in Cuba, and how many years he will have still to wait before he too can have the joy of killing them.”

These are a few extracts from an article which in these times of coronations and great ado about crowned heads ought to make every honest American citizen thankful that just one hundred and twenty years ago our forefathers repudiated allegiance to a European monarch.

FRANCIS JOSEPH'S BROTHER. A Sketch of Archduke Karl Ludwig.

gave a sketch of Archduke Karl Ludwig, or Charles Louis, of Austria, who died a few weeks ago.


Miss Sellers gives the following summary of his life: * Karl Ludwig was born at Schönbrunn in 1833. His father, the Archduke Franz Karl, who thought much more of orthodoxy than of science, handed him over in very early days to the care of the Jesuits. The voice of the Church is to him as the voice of God: at its cominand he would plunge a nation into civil war without a scruple, or lead the most hopeless of crusades. In 1853 he was sent to Galicia as a sort of unofficial Viceroy, that he might have an opportunity of learning something of the science of ruling. He made such good use of his time while there that at the end of two years the Emperor was able to appoint him to the Gov.


ernorship of Tyrol. At that time the Archduke beg are ashamed; and he seemed to know instinctwas two and twenty, full of life and vigor, and he ively when and how to give it. threw himself into the duties of his position with an energy that spread consternation among the some. what sleepy officials by whom he was surrounded.

“In 1871 the Archduchess Annunciata died, to He was in Tyrol to rule and rule he did, on the the sincere regret of her husband, to whom she had whole wisely and well. He worked indefatigably,

been a devoted friend and true helpmate. Two performing all the functions of his office with the years later, to the astonishment both of the world most scrupulous exactitude.

and his own family, Karl Ludwig announced his in

tention of marrying again. This time he had found HIS FIRST WIDOWHOOD.

a bride for himself, and a very charming one too. When in 1856 the Archduke brought his bride She is a daughter of Don Miguel, the Portuguese home to Tyrol, he was welcomed by the whole pop- Pretender, and was only seventeen at the time of ulation with an enthusiasm which excited no little her marriage. She is exceedingly beautiful, brilastonishment in Vienna. But the people of Monza liantly clever, and has most winning manners—an tell how, one September day in 1858, they saw their odd combination of royal stateliness and almost Viceroy enter the palace laughing and talking with

childlike simplicity.” those around him, la joie de vivre in person. Within

In Vienna they would have been delighted to see a week they saw him again, and he had the face of his wife Empress, but there were grave doubts as a haggard old man. The castle flag was flying half

to the Archduke, whose intense clericalism filled mast high, for the Archduchess Margarethe was the politicians with dismay: “Oddly enough, the dead. She died after a few hours' illness, in the populace are immensely proud of his grand seigneur eighteenth year of her age. Karl Ludwig's grief bearing. The only grievance they have against was terrible. For the time being he was distraught. him is that he has too many priests around him. In If the Italian war had not come when it did he would Hungary the general feeling with regard to the probably now be a monk. But he is not the man to Archduke is much less friendly than in the other desert his country when the enemy is at the gate. divisions of the Empire, for the Liberal Magyars As soon as it was known that war was imminent the have no sympathy whatever with the antediluvian.' Archduke hastened back to Tyrol, where the people rallied around him with enthusiasm. They were sorely troubled, however, at the change that had THE LATE SHAH AND HIS SUCCESSOR. come over their young Viceroy. Not only was he

R. J. C. WILLS writes on things Persian in careworn and sorrow bound, but he seemed to have

the Fortnightly Review for June. He does lost all touch with life. It was noticed, too, that

not think that the death of the late Shah will make wherever he went there was always a priest within

much difference : hail."

As Persia was under the government of the late HIS SECOND WIFE.

Shah, so it will probably remain under MozafferNotwithstanding that he had lost all touch of ed-din. The policy will be the same-Russia will life, he consented, in deference to the exigencies of be played off against England, England against the dynasty, to take a second wife in order to rear Russia. In the north the Russian influence will up an heir to the Austrian throne. Miss Sellers preponderate, while we shall continue to regulate says:

matters in the Persian Gulf. Concessions will be “ He merely accepted, and none too gratefully, given and afterward retracted ; a bribe will never the bride his family provided for him. Neverthe- be refused by any man, be he king or peasant ; and less, the marriage proved a fairly happy one. The Persia will remain a nation of highly civilized barnew Archduchess Annunciata of Naples was a sen- barians, ruled by a benignant despot. Persia sible, good-natured woman, who adapted herself changes not ; she only decays.' with admirable tact to her difficult position."

Speaking of the sovereign whose long reign was After the war of 1866 great poverty and distress ended by the assassin, Dr. Wills says : prevailed in Austria, which the Archduke set him- " The late Shah was a good king, an amiable desself to relieve: “Before long he was at the head of pot, a firm, wise, and merciful ruler who had the every important philanthropic undertaking in the welfare of Persia at heart and was neither a tyrant Empire. He was the possessor of great wealth in- nor a voluptuary. His pleasures were simple in herited from the Italian branch of his family; and the extreme ; he was a sportsman par excellence, a he distributed it among the needy with a generous man who delighted in the hunting of big game, a hand. Nor was it only money that he gave. Every fine shot with gun or rifle, one who, like the late appeal to him for help received his personal consid- king of Italy, rejoiced in violent exercise as a relief eration; and he devoted endless time and thought to from town life and the cares of state. The late devising schemes for the prevention of pauperism Shah was no idle or vicious despot ; he did not as well as for its relief. He was always on the smoke, and his diet was of the simplest, and he was alert, too, to give a helping hand to those who to a merciful king. He it was who did away with the


hateful custom of the Shah presiding in person at guarded doorway admitted us inside these walls. executions. It was said outside the country that Leaving a beautiful kiosk to our right, and passing the late Shah was a monster of avarice ; this was through a narrow passage, we came sudderly on a hardly so, for the vast sums exacted as fines and scene of marvelous beauty. bribes from the grandees of the kingdom were not

A FAIRY SCENE. spent in show and riotous living, but placed in the royal treasure house as a nest egg for the evil days

Yildiz stands on the summit of the highest hill that may come to his successors. The long struggle

of the capital, and here before us lay a large lake or that took place between the late king and an arro

artificial river, covered with caiques and boats of gant priesthood lasted for many years, and the

all shapes, an electric launch among others. The Shah succeeded in shaking himself free of the mol gardens sloped to the lake on all sides, the lawns as lahs, and in reducing their enormous claims upon

green, the turf as well kept as in the best English the public purse. Persia is no longer a priest rid gardens. Exquisite shrubs and palms were planted den country. The vast wealth in jewels and specie

in every direction, while the flower beds were a left by the late Shah will be inherited by the new blaze of color. The air was almost heavy with the one, and fifteen millions are not too high an esti

scent of orange blossom, and gardeners were busy mate of its worth, the great globe of gold incrusted at every turn sprinkling the turf, even the cris with huge gems being valued at one million sterling,

gravel walks with water. The harem wall, now while the historical diamond, the Deryah-i. Nûr, or on our right, rose no longer bare, but covered to Sea of Light, and a vast treasure of gems, cut and

the very top with yellow and white Banksia roses, uncut, among which are strings of perfect pearls heliotrope, sweet verbena, passion flowers, etc. as big as sparrow's eggs, form part of the largest

Thousands of white or silvery gray pigeons--the and most valuable collection of precious stones in Prophet's bird-flew in and out of a huge pigeon the world ; these and the cellars full of coined house, built against the walls. half hidden by the gold, mostly English sovereigns and Russian im creepers, and the whole scene was lighted up by perials, and bars and ingots of pure gold, all pass

the brilliant eastern sunlight, in which every obwith the bejeweled peacock throne, the spoil of the

ject stands out so clearly that one's sense of distance conquerer Nadir, to the fortunate Mozaffer-ed din, is almost lost. At the end of the lake is a duck dewho commences his reign as the wealthiest monarch coy, where H. I. M. often amuses himself with shootin the world.”

ing, and far beyond this we could catch glimpses of In the same review, Mr. James Mew writes a well the park sloping away toward the Bosphorus. informed article “ The Modern Persian Stage, · Beyond the pigeon house we entered a building in which full particulars are given about the dra

consisting of one long room, filled with treasures. matic representations of the martyrdom of Hucayn.

This is the Sultan's private museum.

Here are collected and beautifully arranged all the presents

that he has received, as well as innumerable valuaIN THE SULTAN'S PALACE.

ble objects that belonged to some of his predecessors.

· We could have spent hours in examining every



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thing, but time was limited, and we were taken describes a visit which she, accoinpanied by

on to the private stables, still within the harem her husband and son, paid to Constantinople some

walls, holding twelve of the most perfect Arabs, Professor Max Müller was received with

used by the Sultan for riding and driving in the great cordiality by the Sultan, who decorated him,

park of Yildiz. They were all white or gray. Of and gave him every facility of seeing over his pri

course we saw no dogs anywhere - they are held of vate rooms, which are not usually shown to the

no repute in the East ; but I was told the Sultan outsider :

possesses a peculiarly fine breed of white Angora “The Sultan had said that we were to see his

cats, to which he is devoted, and whose progeny private museum, library and garden, and accord

he sometimes gives to friends, but I saw none of ingly when we left we found one of the chamber

them. The only pet we saw was a large cockatoo lains and the Grand Ecuyer waiting to show us

at the harem gate, who uttered some unknown those parts of the palace to which no strangers are

sound -I suppose Turkish-as we passed.” admitted. I believe we were the first foreigners (except the famous traveler Vambéry, who is an

THE LIBRARY. intimate friend of the Sultan) who had ever visited The library was reserved for a special visit, for these parts of the palace. Leaving the kiosk where the Sultan expressly desired his illustrious visitors we had been received, immediately behind the room to see his books in the library, of which Mrs. Max used by the ambassadors at the Selamlik, we walked

Müller says : up the steep hill down which the Sultan drives to • We found a charming old Turkish librarian, the Mosque, and passing through the principal en speaking no language but his own, but proud of trance to Yildiz, we turned to the left. On our right and devoted to the books under his care. He had rose the high bare harem wall, higher than any six or eight intelligent assistants. We were soon prison walls in England ; a closed and carefully seated at a table, a carefully prepared and very full


time ago.

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