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“On the assumption of those princesses be- during the whole of Amense's reign, from the ing identical,” says Dr. Nolan',“ not only the time of his attaining the age of twelve, to his preceding difficulty disappears, but every other reaching thirty-four, to acquire a knowledge difficulty in the account of the princess and of the learning and religion of the Egyptians. her ward, which is preserved on native Of his acquaintance with them he has left monuments, or inserted in the Sacred records. unquestionable evidence in the code which he I have elsewhere undertaken ' to prove them promulgated, and which exhibits a studied the same person, from an examination of
opposition to many of their rites and cerethe monuments, which appear, from the in- monies. In little more than six years from scriptions upon them, to have been erected in the death of the queen, his patroness, he was the reign of Amense. The investigation ter- compelled to flee from Egypt, his life having minated in eliciting such evidence of her re- been menaced by her successor, who, as his ligious opinions, as left no reasonable ground early competitor for the throne, had manifor doubt on her personal identity. The fested a hostile spirit to the memory of his hostility with which these monuments were royal mistress. Whatever might have been treated by her successor, by whom they were the provocation, or the palliation, of his ofobliterated and effaced, was traced to a pro- fence, it is plain he had no hopes from the bable motive ; and other difficulties in her mercy of a king who had sentenced him to history were satisfactorily explained, which death on the bare report of his criminality. This had involved the antiquaries, who undertook circumstance may be mentioned, as it authento remove them, in hopeless contradiction. ticates by its consistency and verisimilitude
“ There is not a circumstance, on the con- the notices respecting the early life of Moses, trary, which is related of Pharaoh's daughter, which have reached us from pagan sources ?. which may not be verified in the short ac- I commend the whole work of Dr. Nolan count which we have received of Amense. to the notice of the student. It affords, like Even to her latest years this Egyptian queen Layard's Nineveh, another and most wonderappears to have been distinguished by the ful proof that, in proportion as we can redeem title which she exclusively receives from from the depths of time the hidden treasures Moses (Exod. ii. 5). On an obelisk which of antiquity, precisely in the same proportion was raised by her at Thebes, and which is we discover new arguments, new proofs and one of the most splendid of the monuments evidences, to confirm the truth of the Seripwhich attest her taste and munificence as a tures, and to assure us of the certainty of patroness of the arts, she is repeatedly termed Revelation.
Pharaoh's daughter. When she recovered The next observation I shall make on the Moses from the Nile, she must have arrived death of Moses is, that whereas in this Secat maturity, from the attendants with which tion (Deut. xxxiv. 10) he is said to have died ; it appears she was then surrounded ; but nine he is said in a former chapter (Deut. xxxii. 50) years had then elapsed from the death of her to be “ gathered to his people.”. The same father, under whom that title, which is equi. expression is used in many places—Gen. valent to 'princess,' was acquired, which xxv. 8. 17 ; xxxv, 29 ; xlix. 29. 33. Numb. had become by this time fixed by custom. xx. 24. 26. 28, &c. &c.—to describe the cesThe circumstances which led to the choice of sation of the present life, and Bishop WarMoses as her successor, are discussed page burton therefore considers the two phrases to 293. While his adoption to the throne proves be synonymous, and to denote only the death that she had no child to succeed her, it verifies of the body. the account of her having been prevented I will not again discuss the question from nominating Moses to that honour solely whether the doctrine of the immortality of through his disinclination to become her suc- the soul was taught in the Old Testament. I cessor (Heb. xi. 24, comp. Exod. ii. 10). have endeavoured, in many places, in the The preference thus shown to him above course of these humble pages, to show that, Meris, his competitor for the throne, will though it was not made the foundation and serve to account for the disrespect manifested sanction of the Mosaic Law, the belief in an by that prince to her memory, and which was invisible world, from which the angel Jehovah principally directed towards those monuments appeared to Adam, to Noah, and to the Pawhich possessed records of her superiority to triarchs generally, was uniformly taken for the errors of the national superstition. As granted; and that we have sufficient proof she imbibed purer religious notions from her to warrant the conviction, that the ancient Hebrew ward, the difference in her opinions Church of God believed that the souls of men must have still further exasperated a prince should exist in that world after the dissoluwhom she had alienated by her preference for tion of the body. When I remember that a rival and an alien." In another part of his learned work, Dr.
? Nolan on the Egyptian Chronology, p. 401, et
seqq. Nolan notices the facilities afforded to Moses
3 I am sorry that Dr. Lee, in his Lexicon, art. 7ox, 9 Page 428.
I Page 278.
has adopted the opinion of Schroeder and of War
“ the person,
the doctrines of Scripture are best explained by the facts of Scripture, and that the spirit of Moses appeared in glory at the transfiguration of Christ ; that is, that he was manifested to the disciples in the same form in which Christ shall again come forth from the same state ; I cannot believe that the death of Moses denoted only that his body was committed to the grave, and that the thinking soul, which had been clothed with that body, slept with it till the day of the transfiguration. The Christian Church has never taught the doctrine that the soul ceases to exist, because the body dies. The question-whether the soul be immortal, is widely different from that, whether it ceases to live, because the present organization of the body has ceased. The original
to collect or gather,” is applied to the plucking of fruit for use, or preservation. When united with tips, or breathing frame of man,” it preserves the same meaning. The person of man consists of two parts, -the body, which is gathered to the grave among the bodies of those who died before it; and the thinking soul, which is gathered, in some unknown manner, to the souls of those who were disembodied before it. In both senses the dying are gathered to their people. In whatever sense the word Sivas, "the grave, or the state of death,” be interpreted, we cannot exclude from its meaning the twofold senses of the former words, now and rips. The person, therefore, of the man who dies, being compounded of body and soul, is united to, or gathered to, the grave where his body shall rest; and to the invisible state, where his soul shall continue in the manner which the Creator has ordained. So it was with the leader of Israel : so will it be with all mankind. His body died. His spirit was received into the invisible state from which the angel Jehovah was accustomed to speak to him, and from which He was manifested. There, in some mode, which we shall all understand when we ourselves become separated from the bodies which now enclothe the soul, Moses remained till the day when he was permitted to become visible to the dis. ciples of Christ, and thus anticipate their future more continued communion with him after the death of their own bodies. There we shall live after our own death, till the day when our souls at the resurrection shall enter upon the third stage of their endless existence. The present life is the first stage ; the intermediate state from which Moses came at the transfiguration is the second ; the third commences with the resurrection, and continues for ever. Nothing is worthy
the serious regard of a man when compared with such subjects as these. The argument of Bishop Warburton has always appeared to me to be both unfair and unphilosophical.
1. “ The objectors to his interpretation that 'to be gathered to his people’ merely signified to die, do not,” he says, “reflect upon the genius of the Eastern speech, which gives action and motion to every thing; in which being reduced to one common lot and condition is called being gathered to their people.
2. “ The objectors forget, too, the peculiar genius of the Hebrew tongue, that delights so much in pleonasms ; in which to die, and to be gathered to their people, are but two different phrases for the same thing. At the same time I am ready to allow that this latter phrase originally arose (whatever people first employed it) from the notion of some common receptacle of souls. But we know how soon, and from what various causes, terus and phrases lose the memory of their original.
3. “ The truth of this interpretation is confirmed by the several contents, where all these expressions occur ; the historian's purpose being evidently nothing else than to record the period of their existence here on earths."
I do not recollect to have seen any where else, within the same compass, a collection of remarks so calculated to mislead. While the Bishop is professedly defending the Scripture against its adversaries, he admits that one error, which is the foundation of nearly all the falsehood of the rationalistic and new logian infidelity of the day. We are told by these writers, that the language of the Holy Book, which we who welcome the common Christianity regard as a revelation from God, is notoriously figurative : and they then proceed to resolve both the facts and doctrines of Scripture into Oriental metaphors If we concede to those writers Warburtog's principle, we give them the means of over: throwing every truth which Christians regari as the very charter of their salvation. War. burton ought to have laid down his principle broadly,—that all Scripture is figurative ; of, that in Scripture there are many figurative ex. pressions, and that this phrase in question is one of them. But he affects to adopt the latter principle, and adroitly avails himself of the former. Secondly, he represents the Hebrew language as delighting in pleonasms ; in which to die, and to be gathered to tảrir people, are but different phrases for the same thing,—thus begging the very question in dispute. It was the learned writer's business to prove this ; not to take it for granted. But, indeed, the invalidity of this reasoning is its least defect : it is openly and intolerably mischievous. Apart from the structure of Hebrew poetry, in which the iteration of the
burton on this point. The faith of Abel and of the Patriarchs cannot be comprehended, if they had no belief in another life after death.
4 Isa. xxxii. 10; Exod. xxiii. 16.
3 Divine Legation, book vi. sect. I
same sentiment in varied phrase is a well- fathers,” denoted that the spirit of the person known characteristic, and in apophthegmatic of whom these words were used, was united compositions, as in the death-bed speeches of to the spirits of his fathers in the world of the Patriarchs, and in the Proverbs, I know souls. of no writings so free from pleonasm as the It cannot be now necessary to prolong this Hebrew Scriptures. I cannot, too, but re- inquiry. I will merely observe, that one of gard the remark with which the learned the chief arguments in favour of Bishop Warand ingenious author of the Divine Lega- burton's theory is derived from 2 Tim. i. 10”, tion follows up and illustrates the fore- which in our version is translated, “brought going argument, as most indefensible. life and immortality to light through the Gos. the same time,” are his words, “ I am ready pel.” The translation is erroneous. The origito allow that this latter phrase [' to be nal words, φωτίσαντος ζωής και αφθαρσίαν διά gathered to their people'] originally arose TOū e vayyediov, mean that Christ, by His Gos(whatever people first employed it) from the pel, illustrated and made plain and clear the notion of a common receptacle of souls. But truths respecting the future life, the incorwe know how soon, and from what various ruption of the body, and the continued existcauses, terms and phrases lose the memory of ence of the soul, which had previously been their original.” The reader of Scripture, comparatively obscure. It does not mean however, will deduce from this an inference that Christ was the first discoverer or revealer directly opposite to that drawn by the learned to the world, that man was compounded of a prelate. Warburton would persuade us that body which should die, and of a soul which a principle, or a tenet, of an antiquity so re- should live. He demonstrated by the transmote, that its source is lost to view, must be figuration the existence of the world of souls. false ; that in course of time it works itself He demonstrated by His resurrection the intrue ; and that the words and phrases, which corruption of the body, and its reunion with once embodied or expressed those principles, the soul. He demonstrated by His ascension have irrecoverably lost their original meaning. the continuance of His holy love, as the High Now (setting aside the physical sciences) in Priest, to intercede for His Church. All, morals, or, rather, in the memorials of great all were component parts of His Gospel, religious truths, the progress is always not illustrating and proving the true nature and from what is false to what is true, but directly dignity of man. Very remarkable, I may the reverse. Truth is older than falsehood. here too observe, was the conversation which Falsehood is the corruption of pre existing took place at the transfiguration, between truth. And the terms which still survive, so Moses, and Christ, and the spirit of the other far from clouding the view of what is thus Hebrew servant of the King of kings ; who, debased, are often the most precious instru. having been taken, without passing through ments which time has preserved to us, to death, into the invisible world, now appeared enable us to feel our way back to those great again to the witnesses of this wonderful truths, of which more recent opinions are but transaction. The last act of the life of Moses perversions.
was the transferring to Joshua, the type Thirdly, when the Bishop says that "the of Christ, the completion of the Exodus objectors overlook the context, in which the from Egypt to Canaan. The subject of the writer's design is plainly seen to be nothing conversation at the transfiguration was the else but a purpose to record the period of better Exodus which Christ should accomthe patriarch's existence here on earth," he plish at Jerusalem, when He should overcome again begs the question, and also employs an the sharpness of death, and open the true argument utterly unfounded. If I were to Canaan-the kingdom of heaven—to all the read in an inscription upon a tomb, that the tribes of the true Israel, to all believers in deceased died; and then read, —" in the sure the atonement of Christ. And such, we and stedfast hope of immortality," the inscrip- may believe, will be our conversation when tion could not be called pleonastic, and be our bodies are gathered to the bodies of said to denote that the epitaph meant only to our fathers in the grave, and our spirits tell us how long the deceased lived in this are gathered to the spirits of believers in the world. I consider the whole theory of War- world of souls. We shall talk of the work of burton, as he has proposed it, popular as his Christ. We shall ponder the eternity that is learned work has long been, to be most un- past, and the eternity that is to come; and the tenable, and most injurious to Christianity. work, and mercy, and wonders of the eternal It has long been used by the opponents of the Saviour shall be the theme of our contemplaspiritual religion of revelation as an objection tion and communion. Where, and what was to the inspiration and divinity of Scripture ; the state of existence in which Moses lived and it is most especially refuted by the fact between his death and the transfiguration ; we have considered, that the appearance of and where, and what is the place and manner Moses at the transfiguration demonstrates that the expression, “ to be gathered to his
| Divine Legation, book ix. cap. 2. VOL. II.
of his existence at present, we cannot tell till one Saviour, one prayer. So may we consider ourselves are united with the souls of the just the death of Moses, and his appearance at made perfect. But that the lawgiver of Is. the transfiguration of our Lord, as the earnest rael is not merely dust and ashes ; that he of the two great events, which must pertain does not merely exist with the loathsome to ourselves,—the death of the body ; and worm, may be firmly believed. And where he, the appearance of the soul, in a spiritual and Elias, and Christ, and the faithful live body, before the Judge of the world. We now, we also may hope to live. The voice must all appear before the judgment-seat of which came from heaven at the transfiguration Christ, to partake of His glory, as Moses and terminated the mission of the religion of Elias ; or to be banished from the presence Moses, as the faith of the Universal Church : of the Lord and of His glory. The day is at “ This is my beloved Son; hear Him :"- hand when the reader who ponders over these hear no longer, as your only faith, the words lines, and thinks, and reasons, and conjeeof Moses he lawgiver, nor of Elias the pro- tures within himself the nature, the destiny, phet ; but hear Him, who is the greater and the continued existence of the soul in Lawgiver, and the nobler Prophet. In the the state that follows death, shall know and presence of the three chosen witnesses,—the understand all these things. Who will not pray number required by the Law,—the spirit of that we may all meet in peace and safety, Moses may be said to have resigned the through God's mercy, in that better, happier, sceptre over the conscience of the Jewish be- higher state, where Christ, and Moses, and liever to the promised Messiah, in whom the Elijah, and the innumerable company of Jew and the Gentile are one. Then the work angels, and the spirits of the just made perof Moses was over, when, in conjunction fect, and our own kindred and friends among with Elijah and with Christ, He confirmed them, and the presence of God, manifested in the faith of the disciples, that the Old Dis- some different mode from that in which we pensation was ending. His office was to con- now behold Him, shall form one holy society! tinue but for a time—and God summoned his Who will not rejoice, if the soul be indeed spirit from the world of disembodied spirits capable of an immortality of happiness, in to appear once more to the embodied spirits such reflections, which are but the anticipa. of the men who followed Christ ; that he tions, and the realizations, and the earnest, of might be a witness to the fact, recorded by the employments and the felicities of that imone of their number for our benefit for ever, mortality? Who will not exclaim, with the that “the law was given by Moses, but grace pious Father of the early Church, “ If these and truth came by Jesus Christ.” The king- things are true, I often wish to die 2 ?” Who dom of Moses ended : the kingdom of Christ will not weep over the infirmities, the weakshall never end. Of that kingdom Moses is nesses, and the inconsistencies, which so often still a servant in heaven. Of that kingdom make death dreadful, and render the loftier we are still the servants upon earth. As we aspirations of the soul a mockery and a scori know not the thoughts of Moses as the dis. to itself ? and who will not rejoice, though embodied spirit between the day of his death with trembling, that the last recorded action and the day of his appearing at the trans- of the leader of Israel, with whose death the figuration, so do we now know nothing of his Pentateuch is now concluded, was the testify: present mode of existence. But as at the ing from the invisible world to the sinful, tbe transfiguration he delighted to talk with Christ
repentant, the humble believer, that while be and Elijah of the true Exodus, the Exodus of welcomes the Revelation of Moses and of the Christ, from the Egypt of this world, to the Prophets, he must be still more persuaded Canaan of heaven ; so also may we now find to obey, and hope, and trust, and persevere our highest spiritual happiness in pondering by Him who rose from the dead? Who will the same great mystery. And if we may not rejoice in the words which came from the presume to rise in thought within the veil, invisible state, in the hearing of Moses, of and to inquire into the nature of the contem- Elias, and of the disciples of Christ : “ This plations of the spirits in heaven ; we may be- is my beloved Son; hear Him?" Let the lieve that they rejoice to anticipate the result heart of man hear Him, who still speaks to of that true Exodus, when the kingdom of all, by the Holy Spirit which He sends forth, that Christ, the common God of the Jew and to bring His people from Egypt, to guide the Gentile, shall be co-extensive with the them through the wilderness, to uphold them earth and heaven. We may believe that the in the death, which divides the present world one prayer which unites earth with heaven, from the future, and unites us to the true and the souls of Moses and Elias, and the Israel in the Canaan of rest. Amen. disciples of their Saviour and our Saviour, is this,_" Thy kingdom come.” So do the
και εγώ μεν γαρ πολλάκις εθέλω τεθνάναι εί κεν souls on earth and the souls in heaven form
ταντά έστιν αληθή.-Justin Martyr. . but one communion. They have one God,
JOURNEYS OF THE ISRAELITES
IN THE WILDERNESS.
First Month, Abib.
Second Monti, Zif (1 Kgs. vi. 1).
MARCI and APRIL. (It began with the first new moon after the vernal equinox.) Setting out on their march on the morning of the 15th day (on the
morrow after the Passover, Exod. xii. 37; Numb. xxxiii. 3) from Ra
meses to Succoth, 2nd Stage.--From Succoth to Etham. (Cloudy pillar first mentioned.] 3rd Stage.--From Etham to Pi-hahiroth. (Now Pharaoh's army ap
proaches.) 4th Stage–From Pi-hahiroth, through the Red Sea, to Marah. [In this
stage they went three days' journey through the wilderness of Etham,
or of Shur.) 5th Stage.--From Marah (seven miles only) to Elim, where they found
palms. 6th Stage.-From Elim (sixteen miles, a long day's journey) to the Red
Sea, where they encamped, but only for two or three days. 7th Stage and Station omitted (P) 8th Stage.-From- -(?) to the wilderness of Sin, where they arrive
on the 15th day of the month (the 30th day after their departure from
Egypt). 9th Stage.-- From Sin to Dophkah. 10th Stage.-From Dophkah to Alush. 11th Stage.--From Alush to Rephidim, where they murmured for water,
were miraculously supplied by streams that issued from the rock at
Horeb, and defeated Amalek (Exod. xvii.; Numb. xxxiii. 14). 12th Stage From Rephidim to SINAI, where they arrive on the 3rd
day of the month (about the 15th or 18th of May), and in five days after (about the 20th or 22nd of May) the Law is first given. (Here
they remain for nearly a year.] [The transactions at Mount Sinai are related in Exod. xix. to the end
of the book; in Leviticus; and in Numb. i.-ix.; X. 1-10.]
THIRD Month. (Chald. Siran, Esth. viii. 9.] This month has no recorded Scriptural Hebrew name.
Sinai. The Law given.
August-September. Seventu MONTI (Chald. Tisri). The Hebrew name (1 Kgs. viii. 2)
is Ethanim. September-October.
(Chald. Marchesvan.) The Hebrew name (1 Kgs. vi. 38) is
December-January. ELEVENTH Month (Chald. Sebal}.
January–February. TWELFTH MONTH (Chald. Adar).
Sinai. The Law given. The golden calf.
Sinai. The Law given.