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dom selection; neither should symbolism nor theory in arrangement hamper the free flow of their artistic sense, or warp their judgment.

Again, is it not desirable that brush work (unless with the babies), shall be restricted to decorative design or scientific work until thorough training in drawing and light-and-shade shall have been mastered? Does not this work require power and skill beyond the usual training and conditions of the schoolroom at the present time? Realism, or the exact imitation of objects, may be of value in scientific study, but it is not art. The power of reproducing the spirit and essence of what we see should be our aim, and I leave it for your consideration whether there is any royal road to such attainment. What might be done with the individual, child or adult, in the studio with plenty of time and with proper materials at hand, can hardly be reasonably expected in our public schools. We must creep before we can walk; and I am sure that you will agree with me that real artistic expression is a language desirable indeed, but acquired only through the slow process not only of learning to see, but also by gaining the power to express by pencil and brush what is seen. Shall we not endeavor to control the color within the limits of agreeable and artistic treatment?

One more point I wish to call your attention to, and that is the importance of good instructors in form and drawing in the normal schools. Normal schools recognize the importance of strong teachers in language, number, and other fundamental branches, but are too apt to take for the form and drawing teachers of very indifferent training. This subject cannot receive its proper development in the public schools until the normal schools recognize its importance sufficiently to be as careful in selecting a thoroughly trained teacher in this subject as they are for any other subject. When, through the training received through our normal schools, the regular grade teacher can teach her part of this subject intelligently, then will the severe duties of the supervisors of drawing be materially lightened, the character and quality of the work accomplished will improve, and art in education shall be an abiding principle, an influence felt in all the schools and in all the homes of our land.









ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA, July 9, 1890. The first session of this Department was called to order at 3 o'clock P. M., in the People's Church; President Herbert Griggs, of Denver, Colorado, in the chair.

The musical program was opened with organ solos by Samuel A. Baldwin, of St. Paul; followed by "The Butterfly Song," given by selected pupils from the public schools of St. Paul.

President Griggs then delivered the President's address.

"Music as a Factor in Education" was the subject of the first paper, by Margaret Morris, of Cincinnati, Ohio. A song, "The Shaking Quakers," was then given by selected pupils from the schools of St. Paul.

C. H. Congdon, director of music in the public schools of St. Paul, regretted that he had not been able to prepare a paper on "Intelligent Singing by the Masses," as announced on the program. Instead, he gave, with classes from the St. Paul public schools, examples of sight-singing, using test exercises written by John W. Tufts, of Boston, which were entirely new to the pupils.

N. Coe Stewart, of Cleveland, Ohio, opened the discussion of the subject, and gave tests to the pupils.

On motion of Mr. Wescott, of Chicago, the time was extended, and Mr. Congdon proceeded; closing the session with "The Swing Song" and "Holy, Holy, Holy," by John W. Tufts, sung by pupils from the sixth, seventh and eighth grades.

The Department then adjourned.


The Department was called to order at 2:30 P.M., in the House of Hope church; President Griggs in the chair.

Two pupils from the public schools of St. Paul rendered a duet; and other selections were given by St. Paul vocalists.

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