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(2) Plans classified according to time given to shop and school.

(a) The Week-about or Half-time Plan, in which alternate weeks are

given to the shop and school. This is sometimes called the two-boy plan, because it is customary to assign two boys to the same task, one working in the shop while the other goes to school and then exchanging places the next week.

(b) The Less than Half-time Plan: This includes all plans which give less than alternate weeks to vocational instruction. The work may be arranged so that the learner has eight hours each week at the school, in some cases five hours a week, in still others from two to four hours. It may readily be seen that decreasing the number of hours given to the school decreases the difficulty of securing additional help, but increases the difficulty of organizing the work at the factory so as to permit the shifting of the workers in a manner necessary to permit them to attend classes.

(3) Plans classified according to enforcement.

(a) Voluntary Part-time Schooling contents itself with providing a school to give the vocational work and persuading employers, parents, and children to cooperate with the school authorities. Sometimes the employer arranges with the school authorities to have some or all of their young workers take the training by making attendance upon the school a condition for their employment.

(b) Compulsory Part-time Schooling occurs when the youth who has gone to work is compelled by law to give a part of his time to the school, and where the employer is required to arrange for time off for the class in order that the child may attend the school. This is the better plan and is the one provided for by the Indiana law.

In the introduction of this work the administrator or director should keep constantly in mind his objective. That is to say, his school or schools should be so organized as

1. To meet the needs of the specific group of workers which have been found as a result of the survey.

2. To add to the technical knowledge and skill of the workers. 3. To make the instruction efficient.

4. To justify the expenditure of money for its support by the amount of time given to the work and by the amount of benefit derived from such work by the pupil.

5. To select for the school instruction data taken directly from practice of up-to-date industrial establishments.

6. To include at least one study in the course which deals directly with training for citizenship.


Whereas the part-time school has for its particular province the training of the boy and girl between 14 and 18, the evening school is the only possible means of benefiting the more mature workers who are ambitious to advance themselves. The majority of the workers who are employed in trades must be reached by evening schools, if at all.

Young people often neglect their opportunities. The desire for wages, pure indifference, and other causes induce many to go to work before they receive the advantages of an industrial education, even when it is offered, and to neglect, in many instances, the advantages of part-time schooling unless this is made compulsory by the States. The awakening which often comes after these chances are past leaves the evening school as the sole remaining hope.

So far as evening work for men, at least, is concerned, it is probable that the best immediate returns in increased economic efficiency from industrial or trade training come from instruction in the evening classes attended by adult workers. They have been in the shop long enough to realize their lack of preparation and its practical value; they have acquired sufficient skill and insight into mechanical processes to know what they need and come to the evening class determined to get it. The instruction, when given by a teacher who is himself familiar with the trade, can be made to appeal at every step to the interest and the previous knowledge and experience of the student.

At the present time the need for evening industrial and trade schools is probably at its greatest in this country. It will be used to bridge over the chasm which has resulted from the lack of industrial education in the past. While there will always be a place for the evening school to give many workers the training they need as the next step forward in their callings, a system of all-day and part-time industrial schools will greatly lessen this need. In Germany, as the result of 30 years of progress, they have been largely replaced by continuation schools, which are more and more becoming day schools. "The evening school may be an imperfect and temporary agency, but it is nevertheless the only agency to do a large part of the work which needs to be done."

The time available for vocational instruction in evening classes is so limited that it is impossible to teach both the theory and practice of a complete trade in an evening school. For this and other reasons it has been found by practical experience that productive wage earning can best be reached by a type of instruction which will give the learner help in solving the actual problems he meets in his daily work-courses which will help him forward a step at a time, as it were, in his mastery of that occupation. In giving instruction in evening classes to farmers, for example, such problems as the following might be taken up: Marketing farm products, selecting seed corn, keeping poultry, how to grow tomatoes, etc. Experience has demonstrated that such short unit courses arranged to meet the specific and immediate needs of the workers provide the best means of giving the needed help. Such courses make it pos sible for a worker to come into the evening class, take one or more

courses and withdraw without interfering with the organization of the school. The work becomes more individual and interesting. Such unit courses may be 1 hour, 10 hours, or 50 hours in length. The following examples from representative occupations and trades will make clear what is meant:

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In contrast to the short unit course is the "long-term singlesubject course," which is the course by which subjects have generally been presented in evening schools.

The long-term courses are primarily for those who know with a fair degree of accuracy what they want; for those who are not likely to become discouraged by a too early announcement of the length of time that will be required to reach the goal that they seek; and for those who have sufficient faith in what the school can do for them to make them willing to pay the price in sacrifice of both time and effort that is necessary to obtain the needed training.

These courses may follow a single subject or a single line of work over a considerable period with a large group of students; or they may start with the large group of men and later differentiate the work into several subdivisions with smaller groups. The work, too, may be so arranged as to permit students here and there throughout the course to supplement it with related study selected from other courses. The distinguishing feature of this course is its continuity for the individual student, and its successful operation is confined almost wholly to very large cities.

On the whole, short unit courses will be found to be the more satisfactory, permitting, as they do, greater flexibility of instruction, better adaptation to individual needs, and a variety of combination that will more nearly meet each student's individual requirements.

The establishment of any school or class giving preparation for any trade raises the question of the relation of the institution to the trade as a training center.

Inasmuch as any plans for vocational secondary education in a town or city must adjust themselves to present-day conditions in the industries, it is necessary to consider not only the processes and demands of the trades and occupations upon the worker, but also the attitude of both employers and employees in the trades as to the kinds of training needed, the ways in which the training can best be given, and what arrangements the employers, employees, and the schools shall agree upon as to the following:

1. The conditions under which new workers are to be trained and received into the trade or occupation.

2. The credit toward the period of apprenticeship to be given any course of training in the schools either before or after employment. 3. The training in schools as well as shops to be required of the apprentice after employment.

4. The preference given to local and trained workers in hiring and promoting in the trade or occupation.

In order to guard against misunderstandings and in order to prevent future complications and difficulties, it will in many instances be necessary to prepare a written bill of particulars which determine somewhat in detail the conditions under which the three most interested parties are willing to cooperate in carrying on the work of Vocational education.

These particulars may make provision for such questions as—

1. The length of the probation period during which the pupil shall be tested out for determining his fitness to go on and complete the training necessary for entrance to the trade which he has selected.

2. The wages to be paid

(a) During the period of part-time training.

(b) At the entrance into the industry on full time.

(c) Graduated scale of increase in wages up to time of acceptance as a full-fledged journeyman.

3. Deferred presentation of the diploma for a period after leaving the school and entrance into the industry to be dependent upon proof of satisfactory work.

4. Preferential employment to be extended to those who have attended day or evening classes for training the worker in trade subjects.

5. Length of time and content to be covered by the instruction in the school.

6. Possibilities and arrangements for instruction during dullseason periods.

7. Arrangements to be made by the trades for encouraging attendance upon evening trade-extension classes.

8. Any other matters which may be pertinent to the local situation. 28250°-16-7

Chapter VI.


In the recent past we have had a large number of industrial surveys or investigations the purpose of which has been to reveal in a very definite way, and susceptible to interpretation in educational terms, the value of instruction for those who are to enter upon industrial careers, or for workers who have already entered the industries. The determination of many of our large industrial communities to take an inventory of their natural resources (meaning their aristocracy of brains) has disclosed the fact that the stock we had believed inexhaustible is somewhat depleted. It is believed that in the past Providence has been kind to us, but in the future Providence is likely to leave us a little more to our own intelligence, and henceforth we must sell more brains and less material.

An immediate determination to pursue the policy of our most successful competitor for industrial and commercial supremacy appears to be agreed upon, and likewise that the same end must be attained by the same means-that is, by industrial education.

It is apparent that there is no limit to the possibilities of human helpfulness that could be realized by the establishment of properly equipped and managed industrial schools. They would become the medium of communication and the promoters of cooperation between the commercial and industrial world and the school.

It is easy to understand why it is not a good thing for a community to have large numbers of boys and girls seeking employment while a reasonable minimum of education is still unattained, or entering upon life careers still too young to be aware of their own possibilities.

Just now we have one of the recurrent periods where the world is filled with reform, generally of the most attractive kind, which aims at making some one other than ourselves virtuous by certain due processes. There is all about us a widespread desire to elevate the moral or material condition of others. At the present moment it is industrial efficiency. All such propositions we must welcome for purposes of study. We must look upon them with attention and examine them, not merely in the roseate glow of enthusiastic hope, but

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