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theory. The phrase "the northern mountain" for the place | partly by his unscrupulous character to a prominent position. where the ship grounded may quite well be the name of an earthly at Athens. He espoused the cause of Philip in the war against substitute (the epic has "the highest summit of the Himalaya ") | Olynthus, and was thus brought into bitter and life-long enmity for the mythic mountain of heaven. Nor is it unimportant that Manu is the son of the sun-god, and that the phrase "the seven rishis" in classical Sanskrit is a designation of the seven stars of the Great Bear. For such problems all that we can hope for is a probable solution. The opposite view1 that the deluge is a historical occurrence implies a self-propagating power in early tradition which is not justified by critical research, and leaves out of sight many important facts revealed by comparative study. For a conspectus of deluge-stories see Andree, Die Flutsagen, ethnographisch betrachtet (1891), by a competent anthropologist; E. Suess, Face of the Earth, i. 17 (1904); also Elwood Worcester, Genesis in the Light of Modern Knowledge (New York, 1901), Appendix ii., in tabular form, from Schwarz's Sintfluth und Völkerwanderungen. Dr Worcester's work is popular, but based on well-chosen authorities. The article "Flood" in Hastings' D. B. is comprehensive; it represents the difficult view that flood-stories, &c., are generally highlycoloured traditions of genuine facts. (T.K. C.)

with Demosthenes, whom he at first supported. He fought against the Macedonians in the battle of Chaeroneia, and was taken prisoner. Having made a favourable impression upon Philip, he was released together with his fellow-captives, and was instrumental in bringing about a treaty of peace between Macedonia and Athens. He continued to be a favourite of Alexander, and, prompted by a bribe, saved Demosthenes and the other obnoxious Athenian orators from his vengeance. It was also chiefly owing to him that Alexander, after the destruction of Thebes, treated Athens so leniently. His conduct in supporting the Macedonian cause, yet receiving any bribes that were offered by the opposite party, caused him to be heavily fined more than once; and he was finally deprived of his civil rights. He was reinstated (322) on the approach of Antipater, to whom he was sent as ambassador. Before setting out he persuaded the citizens to pass sentence of death upon Demosthenes and his followers, who had fled from Athens. The result of his embassy was the conclusion of a peace greatly to the disadvantage of the Athenians. In 318 (or earlier), having been detected in an intrigue with Perdiccas, Antipater's opponent, he was put to death by Antipater at Pella, when entrusted with another mission by the Athenians. Demades was avaricious and unscrupulous; but he was a highly gifted and practised orator.

A fragment of a speech (Hepi dwdekaerias), bearing his name, in which he defends his conduct, is to be found in C. Müller's Oratores Attici, ii. 438, but its genuineness is exceedingly doubtful.

DELYANNI, THEODOROS (1826-1905), Greek statesman, was born at Kalavryta, Peloponnesus, in 1826. He studied law at Athens, and in 1843 entered the ministry of the interior, of which department he became permanent secretary in 1859. In 1862, on the deposition of King Otho, he became minister for foreign affairs in the provisional government. In 1867 he was minister at Paris. On his return to Athens he became a member of successive cabinets in various capacities, and rapidly collected a party around him consisting of those who opposed his great rival, Tricoupi. In the so-called "Oecumenical Ministry "of 1877 he voted for war with Turkey, and on its fall he entered the cabinet DEMAGOGUE (Gr. δημαγωγός, from ἄγειν, to lead, and δῆμος, of Koumoundoros as minister for foreign affairs. He was a the people), a leader of the popular as opposed to any other representative of Greece at the Berlin Congress in 1878. From party. Being particularly used with an invidious sense of a this time forward, and particularly after 1882, when Tricoupi mob leader or orator, one who for his own political ends panders again came into power at the head of a strong party, the duel to the passions and prejudices of the people, the word has come between these two statesmen was the leading feature of Greek to mean an unprincipled agitator. politics. (See GREECE: History.) Delyanni first formed a cabinet in 1885; but his warlike policy, the aim of which was, by threatening Turkey, to force the powers to make concessions in order to avoid the risk of a European war, ended in failure. For the powers, in order to stop his excessive armaments, eventually blockaded the Peiraeus and other ports, and this brought about his downfall. He returned to power in 1890, with a radical programme, but his failure to deal with the financial crisis produced a conflict between him and the king, and his disrespectful attitude resulted in his summary dismissal in 1892. Delyanni, by his demagogic behaviour, evidently expected the public to side with him; but at the elections he was badly beaten. In 1895, however, he again became prime minister, and was at the head of affairs during the Cretan crisis and the opening of the war with Turkey in 1897. The humiliating defeat which ensued -though Delyanni himself had been led into the disastrous war policy to some extent against his will-caused his fall in April 1897, the king again dismissing him from office when he declined to resign. Delyanni kept his own seat at the election of 1899, but his following dwindled to small dimensions. He quickly recovered his influence, however, and he was again president of the council and minister of the interior when, on the 13th of June 1905, he was murdered in revenge for the rigorous measures taken by him against gambling houses.

The main fault of Delyanni as a statesman was that he was unable to grasp the truth that the prosperity of a state depends on its adapting its ambitions to its means. Yet, in his vast projects, which the powers were never likely to endorse, and without their endorsement were vain, he represented the real wishes and aspirations of his countrymen, and his death was the occasion for an extraordinary demonstration of popular grief. He died in extreme poverty, and a pension was voted to the two nieces who lived with him.

DEMADES (c. 380-318 B.C.), Athenian orator and demagogue. He was originally of humble position, and was employed at one time as a common sailor, but he rose partly by his eloquence and 1 Held by Franz Delitzsch, Dillmann and Lenormant.

DEMANTOID, the name given by Nils Gustaf Nordenskiöld to a green garnet, found in the Urals and used as a gem stone. As it possesses high refractive and dispersive power, it presents when properly cut great brilliancy and " fire," and the name has reference to its diamond-like appearance. It is sometimes known as "Uralian emerald," a rather unfortunate name inasmuch as true emerald is found in the Urals, whilst it not infrequently passes in trade as olivine. Demantoid is regarded as a lime-iron garnet, coloured probably by a small proportion of chromium. The colour varies in different specimens from a vivid green to a dull yellowish-green, or even to a brown. The specific gravity of an emerald-green demantoid was found to be 3.849, and that of a greenish-yellow specimen 3.854 (A. H. Church). The hardness is only 6.5, or lower even than that of quartz-a character rather adverse to the use of demantoid as a gem. This mineral was originally discovered as pebbles in the gold-washings at Nizhne Tagilsk in the Ural Mountains, and was afterwards found in the stream called Bobrovka, in the Sysertsk district on the western slope of the Urals. It occurs not only as pebbles but in the form of granular nodules in a serpentine rock, and occasionally, though very rarely, shows traces of crystal faces. (F. W. R.*)

DEMARATUS (Doric Δαμάρατος, Ionic Δημάρητος), king of Sparta of the Eurypontid line, successor of his father Ariston. He is known chiefly for his opposition to his colleague Cleomenes I. (q.v.) in his attempts to make Isagoras tyrant in Athens and afterwards to punish Aegina for medizing. He did his utmost to bring Cleomenes into disfavour at home. Thereupon Cleomenes urged Leotychides, a relative and personal enemy of Demaratus, to claim the throne on the ground that the latter was not really the son of Ariston but of Agetus, his mother's first husband. The Delphic oracle, under the influence of Cleomenes' bribes, pronounced in favour of Leotychides, who became king (491 B.C.). Soon afterwards Demaratus fled to Darius, who gave him the cities of Pergamum, Teuthrania and Halisarna, where his descendants were still ruling at the beginning of the 4th century (Xen. Anabasis, ii. 1. 3, vii. 8. 17; Hellenica, iii. 1. 6); to these

Gambreum should perhaps be added (Athenaeus i. 29 f). He accompanied Xerxes on his expedition to Greece, but the stories told of the warning and advice which on several occasions he addressed to the king are scarcely historical.

Those who were initiated into the mysteries of Eleusis found a deep meaning in the myth, which was held to teach the principle of a future life, founded on the return of Persephone to the upper world, or rather on the process of nature by which seed sown in the ground must first die and rot before it can yield new life (see MYSTERY). At Eleusis, Demeter was venerated as the introducer of all the blessings which agriculture brings in its train-fixed dwelling-places, civil order, marriage and a peaceful life; hence her name Thesmophoros, 66 the bringer of law and order," and the festival Thesmophoria (q.v.). J. G. Frazer takes the epithet to mean "bearer of the sacred objects deposited on the altar "; L. R. Farnell (Cults of the Greek States, iii. 106) suggests "the bringer of treasure or riches," as appropriate to the goddess of corn and of the lower world; others refer the name to" the law of wedlock" (Deσμòs λéktpolo, Odyssey, xxiii. 296, where, however, D. B. Monro translates place, situation "). At Eleusis also, Triptolemus (q.v.), the son of Celeus, who was said to have invented the plough and to have been sent by Demeter round the world to diffuse the knowledge of agriculture, had a temple and threshing-floor.

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See Herodotus v. 75, vi. 50-70, vii.; later writers either reproduce or embellish his narrative (Pausanias iii. 4, 3-5, 7, 7-8; Diodorus xi. 6; Polyaenus ii. 20; Seneca, De beneficiis, vi. 31, 4-12). The story that he took part in the attack on Argos which was repulsed by Telesilla, the poetess, and the Argive women, can hardly be true (Plutarch, Mul. virt. 4; Polyaenus, Strat. viii. 33; G. Busolt, Griechische Geschichte, ii.2 563, note 4). (M. N. T.) DEMERARA, one of the three settlements of British Guiana, taking its name from the river Demerara. See GUIANA. DEMESNE (DEMEINE, DEMAIN, DOMAIN, &c.),1 that portion of the lands of a manor not granted out in freehold tenancy, but (a) retained by the lord of the manor for his own use and occupation or (b) let out as tenemental land to his retainers or "villani." This demesne land, originally held at the will of the lord, in course of time came to acquire fixity of tenure, and developed into the modern copyhold (see MANOR). It is from demesne as used in sense (a) that the modern restricted use of the word comes, i.e. land immediately surrounding the mansion or dwelling-house, In the agrarian legends of Iasion and Erysichthon, Demeter the park or chase. Demesne of the crown, or royal demesne, was also plays an important part. Iasion (or Iasius), a beautiful that part of the crown lands not granted out to feudal tenants, youth, inspired her with love for him in a thrice-ploughed field but which remained under the management of stewards ap-in Crete, the fruit of their union being Plutus (wealth). Accordpointed by the crown. These crown lands, since the accession ing to Homer (Odyssey, v. 128) he was slain by Zeus with a of George III., have been appropriated by parliament, the thunderbolt. The story is compared by Frazer (Golden Bough, sovereign receiving in return a fixed annual sum (see CIVIL 2nd ed., ii. 217) with the west Prussian custom of the mock LIST). Ancient demesne signified lands or manors vested in the birth of a child on the harvest-field, the object being to ensure king at the time of the Norman Conquest. There were special a plentiful crop for the coming year. It seems to point to the privileges surrounding tenancies of these lands, such as freedom supersession of a primitive local Cretan divinity by Demeter, and from tolls and duties, exemption from danegeld and amercement, the adoption of agriculture by the inhabitants, bringing wealth from sitting on juries, &c. Hence, the phrase "ancient in its train in the form of the fruits of the earth, both vegetable demesne came to be applied to the tenure by which the lands and mineral. Some scholars, identifying Iasion with Jason (q.v.), were held. Land held in ancient demesne is sometimes also regard Thessaly as the original home of the legend, and the union called customary freehold. (See COPYHOLD.) with Demeter as the iepòs yáμos of mother earth with a health god. Erysichthon ("tearer up of the earth "), son of Triopas or Myrmidon, having cut down the trees in a grove sacred to the goddess, was punished by her with terrible hunger (Callimachus, Hymn to Demeter; Ovid, Metam. viii. 738-878). Perhaps Erysichthon may be explained as the personification of the labourer, who by the systematic cultivation and tilling of the mature unmolested as in the good old times. Tearing up the soil endeavours to force the crops, instead of allowing them to soil with the plough is regarded as an invasion of the domain of the earth-mother, punished by the all-devouring hunger for wealth, that increases with increasing produce. According to another view, Erysichthon is the destroyer of trees, who wastes away as the plant itself loses its vigour. It is possible that the story may originally have been connected with tree-worship. Here again, as in the case of Iasion, a conflict between an older. and a younger cult seems to be alluded to (for the numerous interpretations see O. Crusius s.v. in Roscher's Lexikon).

DEMETER, in Greek mythology, daughter of Cronus and Rhea and sister of Zeus, goddess of agriculture and civilized life. Her name has been explained as (1) "grain-mother," from nai, the Cretan form of Jaai, "barley," or (2) "earth-mother," or rather "mother earth," dâ being regarded as the Doric form of X. She is rarely mentioned in Homer, nor is she included amongst the Olympian gods.

The central fact of her cult was the story of her daughter Persephone (Proserpine), a favourite subject in classical poetry. According to the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Persephone, while gathering flowers on the Nysian plain (probably here a purely mythical locality), was carried off by Hades (Pluto), the god of the lower world, with the connivance of Zeus (see also PROSERPINE). The incident has been assigned to various other localities-Crete, Eleusis, and Enna in Sicily, the last being most generally adopted. This rape is supposed to point to an original iepòs λáμos, an annual holy marriage of a god and goddess of vegetation. Wandering over the earth in search of her daughter, Demeter learns from Helios the truth about her disappearance. In the form of an old woman named Deo (=the " seeker," or simply a diminutive form), she comes to the house of Celeus at Eleusis, where she is hospitably received. Having revealed herself to the Eleusinians, she departs, in her wrath having visited the earth with a great dearth. At last Zeus appeases her by allowing her daughter to spend two-thirds of the year with her in the upper world. Demeter then returns to Olympus, but before her final departure from earth, in token of her gratitude, she instructs the rulers of Eleusis in the art of agriculture and in the solemnities and rites whereby she desires in future to

be honoured.

1 The form " demesne " is an Anglo-French spelling of the Old Fr. demeine or demaine, belonging to a lord, from Med. Lat. dominicus, dominus, lord; dominicum in Med. Lat. meant proprietas (see Du Cange). From the later Fr. domaine, which approaches more nearly the original Lat., comes the other Eng. form" domain," which is chiefly used in a non-legal sense of any tract of country or district under the rule of any specific sovereign state, &c. Domain" is, however, the form kept in the legal phrase "Eminent Domain " (q.v.).

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It is as a corn-goddess that Demeter appears in Homer and Hesiod, and numerous epithets from various sources (see Bruchmann, Epitheta Deorum, supplement to Roscher's Lexikon, i. 2) attest her character as such. The name 'lovλw (? at Delos), from toulos, " corn-sheaf," has been regarded as identifying the goddess with the sheaf, and as proving that the cult of Demeter originated in the worship of the corn-mother or corn-spirit, the last sheaf having a more or less divine character for the primitive husbandman. According to this view, the prototypes of Demeter and Persephone are the corn-mother and harvest maiden of northern Europe, the corn-fetishes of the field (Frazer, Golden Bough, 2nd ed., ii. 217, 222; but see Farnell, Cults, iii. 35). The influence of Demeter, however, was not limited to corn, but extended to vegetation generally and all the fruits of the earth, with the curious exception of the bean, the use of which was forbidden at Eleusis, and for the protection of which a special patron was invented. In this wider sense Demeter is akin to Ge, with whom she has several epithets in common, and is sometimes identified with Rhea-Cybele; thus Pindar speaks of Demeter Xaλкокρóτos ("brass-rattling "), an epithet obviously more

suitable to the Asiatic than to the Greek earth-goddess. Although | order that Demeter might figure as the moth
the goddess of agriculture is naturally inclined to peace and
averse from war, the memory of the time when her land was won
and kept by the sword still lingers in the epithets xpvoάopos and
Compópos and in the name Triptolemus, which probably means
"thrice fighter" rather than "thrice plougher."

Another important aspect of Demeter was that of a divinity of the under-world; as such she is x@ovía at Sparta and especially at Hermione in Argolis, where she had a celebrated temple, said to have been founded by Clymenus (one of the names of Hades-Pluto) and his sister Chthonia, the children of Phoroneus, an Argive hero. Here there was said to be a descent into the lower world, and local tradition made it the scene of the rape | of Persephone. At the festival Chthonia, a cow (representing, according to Mannhardt, the spirit of vegetation), which voluntarily presented itself, was sacrificed by three old women. Those joining in the procession wore garlands of hyacinth, which seems to attribute a chthonian character to the ceremony, although it may also have been connected with agriculture (see S. Wide, De Sacris Troezeniorum, Hermionensium, Epidauriorum, Upsala, 1888). The striking use of the term onunтpelo in the sense of "the dead" may be noted in this connexion.

The remarkable epithets, Ερινύς and Μέλαινα, as applied to Demeter, were both localized in Arcadia, the first at Thelpusa (or rather Onkeion close by), the second at Phigalia (see W. Immerwahr, Die Kulte und Mythen Arkadiens, i. 1891). According to the Thelpusan story, Demeter, during her wanderings in search of Persephone, changed herself into a mare to avoid the persecution of Poseidon. The god, however, assumed the form of a stallion, and the fruit of the union was a daughter of mystic name and the horse Areion (or Erion). Demeter, at first enraged, afterwards calmed down, and washed herself in the river Ladon by way of purification. Demeter" the angry "(épwús) became Demeter" the bather " (Novoia). An almost identical story was current in the neighbourhood of Tilphossa, a Boeotian spring. In the Phigalian legend, no mention is made of the horse Areion, but only of the daughter, who is called Despoina (mistress),| a title common to all divinities connected with the under-world. Demeter, clad in black (hence μéλawa) in token of mourning for her daughter and wrath with Poseidon, retired into a cave. During that time the earth bore no fruit, and the inhabitants of the world were threatened with starvation. At last Pan, the old god of Arcadia, discovered her hiding-place, and informed Zeus, who sent the Moirae (Fates) to fetch her out. The cave, still called Mavrospělya ("black cave"), was ever afterwards regarded as sacred to Demeter, and in it, according to information given to Pausanias, there had been set up an image of the goddess, a female form seated on a rock, but with a horse's head and mane, to which were attached snakes and other wild animals. It was clothed in a black garment reaching to the feet, and held in one hand a dolphin, in the other a dove. The image was destroyed by fire, replaced by the sculptor Onatas from inspiration in a dream, but disappeared again before the time of Pausanias.

Both μéλawa and épvís, according to Farnell, are epithets of Demeter as an earth-goddess of the under-world. The first has been explained as referring to the gloom of her abode, or the blackness of the withered corn. The second, according to Max Müller and A. Kuhn, is the etymological equivalent of the Sanskrit Saranyu, who, having turned herself into a mare, is pursued by Vivasvat, and becomes the mother of the two Asvins, the Indian Dioscuri, the Indian and Greek myths being regarded as identical. According to Farnell, the meaning of the epithet is to be looked for in the original conception of Erinys, which was that of an earth-goddess akin to Ge, thus naturally associated with Demeter, rather than that of a wrathful avenging deity.

Various interpretations have been given of the horse-headed form of the Black Demeter: (1) that the horse was one of the forms of the corn-spirit in ancient Greece; (2) that it was an animal "devoted" to the chthonian goddess; (3) that it is totemistic; (4) that the form was adopted from Poseidon Hippios, who is frequently associated with the earth-goddess and is said to have received the name Hippios first at Thelpusa, in


discussion of the whole subject see Farnell, Cults, -
The union of Poseidon and Demeter is thus explained.
hardt. As the waves of the sea are fancifully compared to 1.
so a field of corn, waving in the breeze, may be said to represe
the wedding of the sea-god and the corn-goddess. In any case
the association of Poseidon, representing the fertilizing element
of moisture, with Demeter, who causes the plants and seeds to
grow, is quite natural, and seems to have been widespread.

Demeter also appears as a goddess of health, of birth and of marriage; and a certain number of political and ethnic titles is assigned to her. Of the latter the most noteworthy are: Ilavaxaía at Aegium in Achaea, pointing to some connexion with the Achaean league; 'Axaía,1 “the Achaean goddess," unless it refers to the "sorrow " of the goddess for the loss of her daughter (cf. 'Axéa in Boeotia); and, most important of all, 'Aμøiktvovis, at Anthela near Thermopylae, as patron-goddess of the Amphictyonic league, subsequently so well known in connexion with the temple at Delphi.

The Eleusinia and Thesmophoria are discussed elsewhere, but brief mention may here be made of certain agrarian festivals held in honour of Demeter.

1. Haloa, obviously connected with äλws ("threshing-floor "), begun at Athens and finished at Eleusis, where there was a threshing-floor of Triptolemus, in the month Poseideon (December). This date, which is confirmed by historical and epigraphical evidence, seems inappropriate, and it is suggested (A. Mommsen, Feste der Stadt Athen, p. 365 foll.) that the festival, originally held in autumn, was subsequently placed later, so as to synchronize with the winter Dionysia. Dionysus, as the god of vines, and (in a special procession) Poseidon øvráλμos (“ god of vegetation ") were associated with Demeter. In addition to being a harvest festival, marked by the ordinary popular rejoicings, the Haloa had a religious character. The ἀπαρχαί (“ first fruits ") were conveyed to Eleusis, where sacrifice was offered by a priestess, men being prohibited from undertaking the duty. A teλetń (“ initiatory ceremony ") of women by a woman also took place at Eleusis, characterized by obscene jests and the use of phallic emblems. The sacramental meal on this occasion consisted of the produce of land and sea, certain things (pomegranates, honey, eggs) being forbidden for mystical reasons. Although the offerings at the festival were bloodless, the ceremony of the presentation of the ȧrapxai was probably accompanied by animal sacrifice (Farnell, Foucart); Mommsen, however, considers the offerings to have been pastry imitations. Certain games (máтpios ȧywv), of which nothing is known, terminated the proceedings. In Roman imperial times the ephebi had to deliver a speech at the Haloa.

2. Chloeia or Chloia, the festival of the corn beginning to sprout, held at Eleusis in the early spring (Anthesterion) in honour of Demeter Chloë, " the green," the goddess of growing vegetation. This is to be distinguished from the later sacrifice of a ram to the same goddess on the 6th of the month Thargelion, probably intended as an act of propitiation. It has been identified with the Procharisteria (sometimes called Proschaireteria), another spring festival, but this is doubtful. The scholiast on Pindar (Ol. ix. 150) mentions an Athenian harvest festival Eucharisteria.

3. Proërosia, at which prayers were offered for an abundant harvest, before the land was ploughed for sowing. It was also called Proarcturia, an indication that it was held before the rising of Arcturus. According to the traditional account, when Greece was threatened with famine, the Delphic oracle ordered firstfruits to be brought to Athens from all parts of the country, which were to be offered by the Athenians to the goddess Deo on behalf of all the contributors. The most important part of the festival was the three sacred ploughings-the Athenian πÒ Tóλw, the Eleusinian on the Rharian plain, the Scirian (a compromise between Athens and Eleusis). The festival itself 10. Gruppe (Griechische Mythologie, ii. 1177, note 1) considers it "certain that 'Axala='Axeλwia, although he is unable to explain the form.

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took place, probably some time in September, at Eleusis. In | the age of twenty-two he was left by his father to defend Syria later times the ephebi also took part in the Proërosia. against Ptolemy the son of Lagus; he was totally defeated near

4. Thalysia, a thanksgiving festival, held in autumn after the Gaza (312), but soon partially repaired his loss by a victory in the harvest in the island of Cos (see Theocritus vii.).

5. The name of Demeter is also associated with the Scirophoria (see ATHENA). It is considered probable that the festival was originally held in honour of Athena, but that the growing importance of the Eleusinia caused it to be attached to Demeter and Kore.

The attributes of Demeter are chiefly connected with her character as goddess of agriculture and vegetation-ears of corn, the poppy, the mystic basket (calathus) filled with flowers, corn and fruit of all kinds, the pomegranate being especially common. Of animals, the cow and the pig are her favourites, the latter owing to its productivity and the cathartic properties of its blood. The crane is associated with her as an indicator of the weather. As a chthonian divinity she is accompanied by a snake; the myrtle, asphodel and narcissus (which Persephone was gathering when carried off by Hades) also are sacred to her. In Greek art, Demeter is made to resemble Hera, only more matronly and of milder expression; her form is broader and fuller. She is sometimes riding in a chariot drawn by horses or dragons, sometimes walking, sometimes seated upon a throne, alone or with her daughter. The Demeter of Cnidus in the British Museum, of the school of Praxiteles, apparently shows her mourning for the loss of her daughter. The article GREEK ART, fig. 67 (pl. iv.), gives a probable representation of Demeter (or her priestess) from the stone of a vault in a Crimean grave.

The Romans identified Demeter with their own Ceres (q.v.). See L. Preller, Demeter und Persephone (1837); P. R. Förster, Der Raub und die Rückkehr der Persephone (1874), in which consider able space is devoted to the representations of the myth in art; W. Mannhardt, Mythologische Forschungen (1884); J. E. Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (1903); L. Dyer, The Gods in Greece (1891); J. Ġ. Frazer, The Golden Bough (2nd ed.), ii. 168-222; L. Preller, Griechische Mythologie (4th ed., by C. Robert); O. Kern in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopädie, iv. pt. 2 (1901); L. Bloch in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie; O. Gruppe, Griechische Mythologie und Religionsgeschichte, ii. (1907); L. R. Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, iii. (1907); article "Ceres" by F. Lenormant in Ďaremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquités. (J. H. F.) DEMETRIA, a Greek festival in honour of Demeter, held at seed-time, and lasting ten days. Nothing is known of it beyond the fact that the men who took part in it lashed one another with whips of bark (μóρоттоv), while the women made obscene jests. It is even doubtful whether it was a particular festival at all or only another name for the Eleusinia or Thesmophoria. The Dionysia also were called Demetria in honour of Demetrius Poliorcetes, upon whom divine honours were conferred by the Athenians.

Hesychius, s.v. μóрOTTOV; Pollux i. 37; Diod. Sic. v. 4; Plutarch, Demetrius, 12; Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquités. DEMETRIUS, king of Bactria, was the son of the GraecoBactrian king Euthydemus, for whom he negotiated a peace with Antiochus the Great in 206 (Polyb. xi. 34). Soon afterwards he crossed the Hindu Kush and began the invasion of India (Strabo xi. 516); he conquered the Punjab and the valley of the Indus down to the sea and to Gujerat. The town Sangala, a town of the Kathaeans in the Punjab (Arrian v. 22, 2 ff.), he named after his father Euthydemia (Ptol. vii. 1, 46). That his power extended into Arachosia (Afghanistan) is proved by the name of a town Demetrias near Kandahar (Isidor. Charac. 19, cf. Strabo xi. 516). On his coins he wears an elephant's skin with trunk and teeth on his head; on bronze coins, which have also an Indian legend in Kharoshti letters (see BACTRIA), he calls himself the unvanquished king (Baσidéws ȧvikýtov Anμntpiov). One of his coins has already the square form used in India instead of the circular. Eventually he was defeated by the usurper Eucratides (q.v.), who meanwhile had risen to great power in Bactria. About his death we know nothing; his young son Euthydemus II. (known only from coins) can have ruled only a short time. (Ed. M.)

DEMETRIUS, the name of two kings of Macedonia. I. DEMETRIUS I. (337-283 B.C.), surnamed Poliorcetes ("Besieger"), son of Antigonus Cyclops and Stratonice. At


neighbourhood of Myus. After an unsuccessful expedition against Babylon, and several campaigns against Ptolemy on the coasts of Cilicia and Cyprus, Demetrius sailed with a fleet of 250 ships to Athens. He freed the city from the power of Cassander and Ptolemy, expelled the garrison which had been stationed there under Demetrius of Phalerum, and besieged and took Munychia (307). After these victories he was worshipped by the Athenians as a tutelary deity under the title of Soter (" Preserver "). In the campaign of 306 against Ptolemy he defeated Menelaus (the brother of Ptolemy) in Cyprus, and completely destroyed the naval power of Egypt. In 305 he endeavoured to punish the Rhodians for having deserted his cause; and his ingenuity in devising new instruments of siege, in his unsuccessful attempt to reduce the capital, gained him the appellation of Poliorcetes. He returned a second time to Greece as liberator. But his licentiousness and extravagance made the Athenians regret the government of Cassander. He soon, however, roused the jealousy of the successors of Alexander; and Seleucus, Cassander and Lysimachus united to destroy Antigonus and his son. The hostile armies met at Ipsus in Phrygia (301). Antigonus was killed in the battle, and Demetrius, after sustaining a severe loss, retired to Ephesus. This reverse of fortune raised up many enemies against him; and the Athenians refused even to admit him into their city. But he soon afterwards ravaged the territory of Lysimachus, and effected a reconciliation with Seleucus, to whom he gave his daughter Stratonice in marriage. Athens was at this time oppressed by the tyranny of Lachares; but Demetrius, after a protracted blockade, gained possession of the city (294) and pardoned the inhabitants their former misconduct. In the same year he established himself on the throne of Macedonia by the murder of Alexander, the son of Cassander. But here he was continually threatened by Pyrrhus, who took advantage of his occasional absence to ravage the defenceless part of his kingdom (Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 7 ff.); and at length the combined forces of Pyrrhus, Ptolemy and Lysimachus, assisted by the disaffected among his own subjects, obliged him to leave Macedonia after he had sat on the throne for six years (294-288). He passed into Asia, and attacked some of the provinces of Lysimachus with varying success; but famine and pestilence destroyed the greater part of his army, and he solicited Seleucus for support and assistance. But before he reached Syria hostilities broke out; and after he had gained some advantages over his son-in-law, Demetrius was totally forsaken by his troops on the field of battle, and surrendered his person to Seleucus. His son Antigonus offered all his possessions, and even his person, in order to procure his father's liberty; but all proved unavailing, and Demetrius died in the fifty-fourth year of his age, after a confinement of three years (283). His remains were given to Antigonus, honoured with a splendid funeral at Corinth, and thence conveyed to Demetrias. His posterity remained in possession of the Macedonian throne till the time of Perseus, who was conquered by the Romans.

See Life by Plutarch; Diod. Sic. xix. xx.; Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Antigonos von Karystos; De Sanctis, Contributi alla storia Ateniese in Beloch's Studi di storia antica (1893); Fergusson in Lehmann's Beiträge z. alt. Gesch. (Klio) vol. v. (1905); also authorities under MACEDONIan Empire.

2. DEMETRIUS II., son of Antigonus Gonatas, reigned from 239 to 229 B.C. He had already during his father's lifetime distinguished himself by defeating Alexander of Epirus at Derdia and so saving Macedonia (about 260?). On his accession he had to face a coalition which the two great leagues, usually rivals, the Aetolian and Achaean, formed against the Macedonian power. He succeeded in dealing this coalition severe blows, wresting Boeotia from their alliance. The revolution in Epirus, which substituted a republican league for the monarchy, gravely weakened his position. Demetrius had also to defend Macedonia against the wild peoples of the north. A battle with the Dardanians turned out disastrously, and he died shortly afterwards,

leaving Philip, his son by Chryseïs, still a child.

Former wives of Demetrius were Stratonice, the daughter of the Seleucid king Antiochus I., Phthia the daughter of Alexander of Epirus, and Nicaea, the widow of his cousin Alexander. The chronology of these marriages is a matter of dispute.

See Thirlwall, History of Greece, vol. viii. (1847); Ad. Holm, Griech. Gesch. vol. iv. (1894); B. Niese, Gesch. d. griech. u. maked. Staaten, vol. ii. (1899); J. Beloch, Griech. Gesch. vol. iii. (1904). (E. R. B.) DEMETRIUS, the name of three kings of Syria. DEMETRIUS I. (d. 150 B.C.), surnamed Soter, was sent to Rome as a hostage during the reign of his father, Seleucus IV. Philopator, but after his father's death in 175 B.C. he escaped from confinement, and established himself on the Syrian throne (162 B.C.) after overthrowing and murdering King Antiochus V. Eupator. He acquired his surname of Soter, or Saviour, from the Babylonians, whom he delivered from the tyranny of the Median satrap, Timarchus, and is famous in Jewish history for his contests with the Maccabees. Hated for his vices, Demetrius fell in battle against the usurper, Alexander Balas, in 150 B.C.

DEMETRIUS II. (d. 125 B.C.), surnamed Nicator, son of Demetrius I., fled to Crete after the death of his father, but about 147 B.C. he returned to Syria, and with the help of Ptolemy VII. Philometor, king of Egypt, regained his father's throne. In 140 B.C. he marched against Mithradates, king of Parthia, but was taken prisoner by treachery, and remained in captivity for ten years, regaining his throne about 129 B.C. on the death of his brother, Antiochus VII., who had usurped it. His cruelties and vices, however, caused him to be greatly detested, and during another civil war he was defeated in a battle at Damascus, and killed near Tyre, possibly at the instigation of his wife, a daughter of Ptolemy VII., who was indignant at his subsequent marriage with a daughter of the Parthian king, Mithradates. His successor was his son, Antiochus VIII. Grypus.

DEMETRIUS III. (d. 88 B.c.), called Euergetes and Philometor, was the son of Antiochus VIII. Grypus. By the assistance of Ptolemy X. Lathyrus, king of Egypt, he recovered part of his Syrian dominions from Antiochus X. Eusebes, and held his court at Damascus. In attempting to dethrone his brother, Philip Epiphanes, he was defeated by the Arabs and Parthians, was taken prisoner, and kept in confinement in Parthia by King Mithradates until his death in 88 B.C.

DEMETRIUS, a Greek sculptor of the early part of the 4th century B.C., who is said by ancient critics to have been notable for the life-like realism of his statues. His portrait of Pellichus, a Corinthian general," with fat paunch and bald head, wearing a cloak which leaves him half exposed, with some of the hairs of his head flowing in the wind, and prominent veins," was admired by Lucian. He was contrasted with Cresilas (q.v.), an idealizing sculptor of the generation before. Since however the peculiarities mentioned by Lucian do not appear in Greek portraits before the 3rd century B.C., and since the Greek art of the 4th century consistently idealizes, there would seem to be a difficulty to explain. The date of Demetrius above given is confirmed by inscriptions found on the Athenian Acropolis. (P. G.)

DEMETRIUS, a Cynic philosopher, born at Sunium, who lived partly at Corinth and later in Rome during the reigns of Caligula, Nero and Vespasian. He was an intimate friend of Thrasea Paetus and Seneca, and was held in the highest estimation for his consistent disregard of creature comfort in the pursuit of virtue. His contempt for worldly prosperity is shown by his reply to Caligula who, wishing to gain his friendship, sent him a large present. He replied, “If Caligula had intended to bribe me, he should have offered me his crown." Vespasian banished him, but Demetrius laughed at the punishment and mocked the emperor's anger. He reached the logical conclusion of Cynicism in attaching no real importance to scientific data.

DEMETRIUS DONSKOI 1 (1350–1389), grand duke of Vladimir and Moscow, son of the grand duke Ivan Ivanovich by his second consort Aleksandra, was placed on the grand-ducal throne of Vladimir by the Tatar khan in 1362, and married the princess Eudoxia of Nizhniy Novgorod in 1364. It was now that Moscow 1 Of the Don.

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was first fortified by a strong wall, or kreml (citadel), and the grand duke began " to bring all the other princes under his will." Michael, prince of Tver, appealed however for help to Olgierd, grand duke of Lithuania, who appeared before Moscow with his army and compelled Demetrius to make restitution to the prince of Tver (1369). The war between Tver and Vladimir continued intermittently for some years, and both the Tatars and the Lithuanians took an active part in it. Demetrius was generally successful in what was really a contention for the supremacy. In 1371 he won over the khan by a personal visit to the Horde, add in 1372 he defeated the Lithuanians at Lyubutsk. Demetrius then formed a league of all the Russian princes against the Tatars and in 1380 encountered them on the plain of Kulikovo, between the rivers Nepryadvaya and Don, where he completely routed them, the grand khan Mamai perishing in his flight from the field. But now Toktamish, the deputy of Tamerlane, suddenly appeared in the Horde and organized a punitive expedition against Demetrius. Moscow was taken by treachery, and the Russian lands were again subdued by the Tatars (1381). Nevertheless, while compelled to submit to the Horde, Demetrius maintained his hegemony over Tver, Novgorod and the other recalcitrant Russian principalities, and even held his own against the Lithuanian grand dukes, so that by his last testament he was able to leave not only his ancestral possessions but his grand-dukedom also to his son Basil. Demetrius was one of the greatest of the north Russian grand dukes. He was not merely a cautious and tactful statesman, but also a valiant and capable captain, in striking contrast to most of the princes of his house.

See Sergyei Solovev, History of Russia (Rus.), vols. i.-ii. (St Petersburg, 1857), &c.; Nikolai Savelev, Demetrius Ivanovich Donskoi (Rus.), (Moscow, 1837). (R. N. B.) DEMETRIUS PHALEREUS (c. 345-283 B.C.), Attic orator, statesman and philosopher, born at Phalerum, was a pupil of Theophrastus and an adherent of the Peripatetic school. He governed the city of Athens as representative of Cassander (q.v.) for ten years from 317. It is said that he so won the hearts of the people that 360 statues were erected in his honour; but opinions are divided as to the character of his rule. On the restoration of the old democracy by Demetrius Poliorcetes, he was condemned to death by the fickle Athenians and obliged to leave the city. He escaped to Egypt, where he was protected by Ptolemy Lagus, to whom he is said to have suggested the foundation of the Alexandrian library. Having incurred the displeasure of Lagus's successor Philadelphus, Demetrius was banished to Upper Egypt, where he died (according to some, voluntarily) from the bite of an asp. Demetrius composed a large number of works on poetry, history, politics, rhetoric and accounts of embassies, all of which are lost.

The treatise Пepi 'Epμnveías (on rhetorical expression), which is often ascribed to him, is probably the work of a later Alexandrian L. Radermacher (1901) and W. Rhys Roberts (1902), the last-named (1st century A.D.) of the same name; it has been edited by providing English translation, introduction, notes, glossary and complete bibliography. Fragments in C. Müller, Frag. Hist. Graec. ii. p. 362. See A. Holm, History of Greece (Eng. trans.), iv. 60.

DEMETRIUS, PSEUDO- (or FALSE), the name by which three Muscovite princes and pretenders, who claimed to be Demetrius, son of Ivan the Terrible, are known in history. The real Demetrius had been murdered, while still a child, in 1591, at Uglich, his widowed mother's appanage.

1. In the reign of Tsar Boris Godunov (1598-1605), the first of these pretenders, whose origin is still obscure, emigrated to Lithuania and persuaded many of the magnates there of his tsarish birth, and consequently of his right to the Muscovite throne. His real name seems to have been Yury or Gregory, and he was the grandson of Bogdan Otrepev, a Galician boyar, and a tool in the hands of Tsar Boris Godunov's enemies. He first appears in history circa 1600, when his learning and assurance seem to have greatly impressed the Muscovite patriarch Job. Tsar Boris, however, ordered him to be seized and examined, whereupon he fled to Prince Constantine Ostrogsky at Ostrog, and subsequently entered the service of another Lithuanian, Prince Wisniwiecki, who accepted him for what he pretended

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