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party had its governor, and each elected its house of representatives. Both were failures. One wanted a legal sanction, and the other popular favor. It had been the common practice for North Carolinia to resist and imprison her governor, until, according to writers of the day, they came “to look upon that as lawful which had been so long tolerated,” and the party of the proprietaries was easily “ trodden under foot.” The Quakers were a numerous people there and, having been fatally trusted with a large share in the administration of that government, were resolved to maintain themselves therein.
In the hope of restoring peace and order where only confusion and anarchy had reigned, Edward Hyde was dispatched to govern the province; but he was to receive his commission as deputy from Tynte, the governor of the southern division, and, as Tynte had already fallen a victim to the climate, Hyde had no authority to act save private letters from the proprietaries. He tried to organize a government, even convened a legislature; but it was elected under forms, which, in the eyes of his opponents, tainted the action with illegality, and it showed no desire to heal by prudence the distraction of the country, but, blinded by zeal for revenge, made passionate enactments, “ of which they had not power to enforce the execution,” and
which, in Virginia, even royalists condemned as unjustifiably severe. At once, “the true spirit of Quakerism appeared” in open disobedience to unjust laws. With some of his friends, Cary took up arms, and it was rumored that they were ready for an alliance with the Indians. The governor of Virginia, an experienced soldier named Spotswood, was summoned by Hyde as an ally.
Governor Spotswood was embarrassed. He thought the country could not be safe so long as such incendiary spirits as swayed Carolinia were permitted to go unpunished; but the difficulty of marching troops into a country so cut up with rivers rendered the thought almost madness; besides, there were no troops but militia, the common people, or citizen soldiers, and as so many of them were in sympathy with the Carolinians, he readily saw the folly of such an attempt. The governor of Virginia might as well have attempted a military expedition against foxes and raccoons, or tried to enforce religious uniformity among the colonies, as to employ methods of invasion against men whose dwellings were so sheltered by creeks, so hidden by forests, so protected by solitudes as to be inapproachable by any regular army.
The insurgents played a high hand, obstructing the course of justice, demanding the “ dissolution of the assembly, and the repeal of all laws they
disliked.”. Spotswood did send a party of marines from the guard-ships which were at his disposition; but not a shot was fired.
Cary and the leaders of his party boldly appeared in Virginia, for the purpose, as they said, of appealing to England in defence of their actions, and Spotswood compelled them to take their passage in the man-of-war just ready to sail for England.
Though the leaders were gone, North Carolinia remained as before. Its burgesses, obeying the popular judgment, refused to make provision for defending any part of their country unless they could bring into the government persons obnoxious to the opposite party, and therefore the assembly was promptly dissolved. There was little hope of harmony between the proprietaries and the inhabitants of North Carolinia.
Notwithstanding the internal dissensions with which the Carolinias were torn, they were enriched by some excellent immigration. In 1607, some Iluguenots came from their temporary settlement in Virginia, and seated themselves on the beautiful banks of the Trent, a tributary of the Neuse. They were followed, two years afterward, by emigrants from Switzerland, who founded New Berne at the head of the Neuse. At about the same time, a hundred fugitive German families, led by Count Graffenried, from the devastated Palatinates on the Rhine, came to seek shelter and repose. They founded settlements on the headwaters of the Neuse, and banks of the Roanoke.
Not long after these inland settlements were planted and had begun to spread, a fearful calamity fell upon the Germans. The remnants of the exasperated tribes, who had been driven from the forests to the mountains, had nursed their revenge, until it became too strong for repression. Incited and led by the Tuscaroras, a fierce Algonquin tribe, they joined in an effort to repossess their lost country. In this patriotic endeavor the Corees, a tribe living near the seaboard and further south, became their allies. All of a sudden they fell with such fury upon the scattered German settlers along the Roanoke and the borders of Pamlico Sound, that, in a single October night in 1711, they slew one hundred men, women and children, and lighted up the country for scores of miles with the flames of burning dwellings. Like fiends with knife and torch they swept along the borders of the Albemarle Sound, killing, plundering and burning, during the space of three days, until, overcome by exhaustion and drunkenness, they were by nature compelled to desist. On the very day the murderous raid began, John Lawson, surveyor-general of the province, and Count Graffenried, were taken captive by the savages.
Lawson was tied to a tree and burned to death ; but the Count saved his life and gained his liberty by adroitly persuading them, that he was the sachem of a tribe of men who had lately come into the country, and were in no way connected with or related to the English. This event put a check to internal quarrels and the wildest excitement spread over all North Carolinia. In affright, everybody fled toward the sea, and many left the province, and those who remained appealed to their brethren in South Carolinia for aid. Colonel Barnwell hastily collected some Carolinians and a body of friendly Indians composed of Cherokees, Creeks, Catawbas, and Yamasees, and, striking the oncoming tide of savages, rolled it back.
The Tuscaroras were the greatest sufferers in the sequel to this murderous onslaught. They were driven to their fortified town in the present county of Craven, and there made a solemn treaty of peace with the whites. The savages no doubt intended keeping their treaty; but the rage of the South Carolinians could not be appeased by so easy a victory, and on their return home, they, in violation of their treaty obligation, committed many outrages on the Indians.
The savages, enraged at the perfidy of men whom they had thought superior in honor and mental ability to themselves, flew to arms. Once