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as in ordinary carriage building, pleasure carriages costing from $1,200 to $1,500, and special designs a larger sum. A visitor to Paris this summer will probably have an opportunity to engage the horseless vehicle by the hour or trip, for a company has been formed for the purpose of putting five hundred out at once. Many of the French manufacturers now show a line of delivery wagons, and in Paris several of the great stores are contemplating their adoption."
The beneficial effect of the moto.cycle on the roads is also referred to :
“ General Morin, of France, is authority for the statement that the deterioration of common roads, except that which is caused by the weather, is twothirds due to the wear of horses' feet and one-third due to the wheels of vehicles. This being the case, if the same amount as usual continues to be laid out upon the roads and the continual damage decrease two-thirds, then the amount spent will go to increased and permanent improvement, and the roads will be 'as smooth as a barn floor.''
Even in our small army of twenty-five thousand men, nearly ten thousand horses and mules are now required for cavalry, artillery and general draught purposes. There is little doubt that the work required of these animals could be done bet. ter and more cheaply, at least in a large number of cases, by specially devised motor vehicles. Provision trains and cannon could be drawn by motors. and they would be of especial utility in the ambu lance service.
Already built, in the Daimler Motor Works, at Steinway, Long Island, is a heavy wagon, similar to a circus wagon, equipped with a gasoline motor of sufficient power to drive an electric generator that has been repeatedly used to furnish the illumination for the whole factory. Imagine such a wagon perfected so as to become a veritable electric power house on wheels, with energy enough to drive its own propelling motor and the motors for lighting as well. Its outer surfaces might be sheathed with steel, so as to protect it from rifle shots ; and it might even be equipped with a Gatling gun or two, so that it could in case of need return a hostile fire. When night came on, and the battle ceased, such a wagon might roll forward upon the battle field, followed by a train of motor driven ambulances, with surgeons and nurses on board, bringing succor to the wounded.
The wagon stops ; wires are reeled out quickly by its corps of men, and arc lamps suspended at various points ; and in a few minutes, for a hundred yards around, the battle field becomes as light as day. Mean. while the ambulances have come up and ranged themselves about in a circle, within which deft fingered men and women are speedily at work with flasks and bandages."
THE CAPITALIST AND THE HORSELESS CARRIAGE.
R. CLEVELAND MOFFETT contributes
MR to the July McClure's an "Edge of the
Future” article in which he tells of the sudden rise of the horseless carriage, and especially of the interest taken in it by capitalists and practical people. He reports a New York expert as saying that he had a list of between five and six hundred horseless carriage devices of American invention alone. A newspaper, The Horseless Age, is now in existence, and its editors say that Wall street capital is going into lines of inotor stages to be run in Cleveland and in various parts of the South, notably in South Carolina. In several American cities I know that street railway companies are actively preparing to use motor stages in connecting trolley lines whose terminals are a mile or so apart ; this is being done in Boston by the Commonwealth Avenue Railway Company. Another case is in Sulphur Springs Colorado, where a line of horseless stages is in successful operation through the Rockies. And at Portland, Maine, an enterprising Yankee has provided a number of motor buckboards for the service and pleasure of summer excursionists.” The government has decided to introduce motor mail wagons as soon as the best model is decided upon, the officials having become convinced that such wagons will show a gain in economy.
THE CONQUERING CYCLE.” *ARAH A. TOOLEY gives in the Woman at
Home a pleasing sketch of Princess Maud of Wales, and does justice to the royal maiden's inde. pendence of character and love of fun. Incidental evidence is borne to the way in which the cycle is ousting the horse in the circles which have most influence on fashion :
Knowing how devoted Princess Maud is to animals, and that she has always been the best equestrienne in the family, her friends have felt some surprise at the enthusiasm with which she has taken to the bicycle. At one time she rode her saddle horse daily, but now that beautiful creature sighs in vain for his fair and fearless rider, for the horse of wheels has quite superseded him in her favor. A characteristic reason was given for this change by a man on the estate. "Yes,' he said to me, “the Princesses don't often come out on horseback now-you see they finds the bicycles so much handier.'
“ It would be impossible to find a more graceful and expert rider of the bicycle than Princess Maud.
THE HORSELESS CARRIAGE AS A WAR MACHINE.
Mr. Moffett says :
“ The motor vehicle seems not unlikely to play an important part some day as one of the appliances of
General Miles has recommended that twelve companies of the army, a force equal to one full regiment, be equipped with bicycles and motor wagons.
She sits perfectly upright, without the slightest ap
CYCLING FOR WOMEN. proach to the stoop which so many cyclists seem
, out any apparent effort. Her cycling dress is of by black or navy blue, and consists of a short, narrow,
View of Cycling for Ladies." Dr. Fenton-sensible serge skirt, tight fitting jacket and vest, and a small man that he is recognizes that, far from being hat turned up at the sides, or a toque to match her dangerous to health, cycling has done more to imdress. She appears to find this costume easy and prove the health of women than almost anything comfortable and has never adopted any approach
that has ever been invented: to the rational dress. Mud has no terrors for her,
“Let it at once be said, an organically sound for I have had the pleasure of seeing her spinning
woman can cycle with as much impunity as a man. along the Sandringham roads just after a thaw, Thank heaven, we know now that this is not one when one hardly knew where to walk to avoid the more of the sexual problems of the day. Sex has slush. She is a very rapid rider, and is generally nothing to do with it, beyond the adaptation of seen well in advance of her sister, the Princess Vic
machine to dress and dress to machine. Women toria, who, though an equally graceful rider, is less are capable of great physical improvement where adventurous. When the Princesses are out cycling the opportunity exists. Dress even now heavily it will generally be found that their mother's pony handicaps them. How fatiguing, and dangerous carriage is not far away.”
were heavy petticoats and flowing skirts in cycling At Mentmore, too, where one might have thought even a few years ago, the plucky pioneers alone can the cult of St. Ladas would cast out any foreign god, we learn from Fred. Dolman's paper in Cassell's Family Magazine, the bicycle has taken the place of the pony in the affections of Lord Rose
Inappropriate dress has a certain number of bery's two sons.
chills to account for. When fair practice has been made, and the ‘hot stage,' so to speak, is over, the
feet, ankles, neck and arms get very cold when A FLYING MACHINE STOCK COMPANY.
working up against wind. Gaiters or spats, high
collars, close-fitting sleeves meet this difficulty. SumN the July Cosmopolitan Mr. John Brisben mer or winter it is far safer to wear warm absorbent
Walker, the editor of the magazine, writes on a underclothing and avoid cotton. favorite subject, the flying machine and its imme. “ The diseases of women take a front place in our diate possibilities. He tells how Otto Lilienthal social life; but if looked into, 90 per cent. of them received his ideas of a practical flying machine by are functional ailments, begotten of ennui and lack watching a vulture balance himself in the air, and of opportunity of some means of working off their how this persistent inventor experimented with superfluous, muscular, nervous, and organic energy. silken wings stretched on bamboo frames until The effect of cycling, within the physical capache was able to soar through the air from an altitudi ity of a woman, acts like a charm for gout, rheunous starting point for one, two or three hundred matism and indigestion. Sleeplessness, so-called feet. One of the Lilienthal machines has been 'nerves,' and all those petty miseries for which the brought to New York by an enterprising news "liver’ is so often made the scapegoat, disappear in paper, and some promising experiments have been the most extraordinary way with the fresh air inmade. Mr. Walker thinks that in view of the revo haled, and with the tissue destruction and recon. lutionary importance of such experiments to the struction effected by exercise and exhilaration. “Coming Race," there should be a thousand of Lilienthal's apparatus scattered through our schools
A FOE TO INVALIDISM. and colleges. * Every campus might have its twohundred foot tower, with platforms at thirty, fifty, "The large abdominal muscles do little in riding eighty, one hundred, one hundred and fifty and two down hill or on level ground; but in hill-climbing bundred feet, from the lowest of which the aërial great strain is thrown upon them. There are many athlete would begin to soar, and with acquired reasons why women should not overtax this group. skill and confidence advance successively to the Already thousands of women, qualifying for general higher vantage places." Mr. Walker offers to sub invalidism, have been rescued by cycling Women scribe the sum of $5,000 to a stock company on con are very subject to varicose veins in the legs. dition that others shall raise the remainder of $100, Cycling often rids them of this trouble. A girl who 000, the capital that is obtained to be used in the has to stand for hours and hours serving behind a general furtherance of experiments in flying. “ Each counter gets relief untold from an evening spin on subscriber shall contribute his subscription without her • bike.' Her circulation has been improved, and expectation of profit or return of any kind, but the aches and pains which would have shortly made simply with a view to furthering the solution of an old woman of her have gone, and a sense of exthe problem of aërial navigation."
hilaration and relief has taken their place."
THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED
THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY.
and after falling and pretending to be dead, should have
suffered himself to be carried into exile in a strange HE July Atlantic opens with four articles of a more land. At the battle of Waterloo Ney vainly sought death
serious and ambitious nature than are usually wherever the battle was fiercest. With an army of sixty found in its pages. Mr. E. L. Godkin is the author of the thousand men still left, he capitulated under the walls first, a review of Mr. Lecky's “ Democracy and Liberty." of Paris, upon condition of general amnesty of offenses Mr. Godkin expresses the opinion that democracy in both civil and military. These terms were basely vioAmerica, like democracy and monarchy elsewhere, is fol lated, and to satisfy the clamor of the returned aristocrats lowing the course of other political societies. It is suffer of the old régime, Ney was excuted. Wellington could ing from unforeseen evils, as well as enjoying unforeseen have prevented this crime after the condemnation by blessings. It will probably be worse before it is better. the chambers of peers, but did not, for reasons best
Professor John Fisk follows with a paper entitled “ A known to himself. Ney was offered an opportunity to Century's Progress in Science,” which, together with escape, but refused. He asked the soldiers to fire at his Ex-Minister E. J. Phelps' article on “Arbitration and Our heart, and they did. Relations with England," we notice at greater length “ Moreover, at the time when it is claimed that Ney among “Leading Articles."
was concealing himself in North Carolina, Joseph BonaUnder his title, “The United States and the Anglo parte was living at Bordentown, and his house and his Saxon of the Future,” Mr. George Burton Adams con fortune would have been at Ney's disposal. Moreover, siders the theoretical possibility of unification of the after the fall of the Bourbons there would have been no English-speaking peoples in a state twice the size of the reason why Ney should not have returned to France. In Roman Empire, and examines into the respective claims 1832 Eugène Ney, his third son, visited the United of the United States and of England to the leadership in States, and went to the house of his kinsman Genet, such an Anglo-Saxon union. He decides in favor of the who resided on the Hudson, near Albany, but never heard United States, but notes several obstacles, of which the of this alleged Duke of Elchingen. It is useless to follow most important are, first, the fact that England would these absurdities further. Ney is buried in Père la not be willing to join any union of which the United Chaise at Paris, with two of his sons and his brother-inStates was the recognized center, and secondly, the law Gamot. A plain slab marks the place. On the spot prevalent feeling concerning the traditional policy of the where he was excuted stands a monument erected by United States against entangling alliances.
the French government." There are some exceedingly candid “Confessions of Mr. Marion Crawford, who is certainly the right man Public School Teachers," drawn forth by invitation of to describe St. Peter's, gives us a history of the foundthe editor of the Atlantic, which are surprising in the ing of that magnificent Roman edifice and a peep at the evidence they give of the extent the local politicians in tombs of famous popes in the historic basilica. He many parts of the country keep their hold on the appoint
says : ments of teachers, and no less in the matter of fact way “ It needs fifty thousand persons to make a crowd in in which these teachers write about the influence of St. Peter's. It is believed that at least that number have the publishers of text books in the selection and reten been present in the church several times within modern tion of school officers.
memory ; but it is thought that the building would hold eighty thousand-as many as could be seated on the
tiers in the Colosseum. Such a concourse was there at THE CENTURY.
the opening of the Ecumenical Council in December,
1869, and at the two jubilees celebrated by Leo XIII; HE July Century contains a third paper by Mr. and on all three occasions there was plenty of room in
James Bryce on South Africa, some quotations the aisles, besides the broad spaces which were required from which will be found among the “ Leading Articles." for the functions themselves.”
Not long ago there were some exceedingly picturesque Frank W. Stokes has a pleasant article, finely illusaccounts in the magazines and papers of Marshal Ney's trated, which he calls “ An Arctic Studio,” which gives reputed escape to America, and of his schoolmaster ex an artist's view of the icebound spot in which he set up perience in North Carolina. Indeed, a volume was pub his easel. We quote his graphic description of Arctic lished to prove that he was not shot in 1815, but that he night : had recently died in the South. George C. Genet contrib " Early one morning, after vainly endeavoring to sleep, utes to the Century an article, “A Family Record of I went outside. The stars were shining in a sky of dark, Ney's Execution," written by Madame Campan, which rich purple lightening to a yellowish tone on the northshows the absurdity of this theory. In this last record ern horizon ; the vast desert was a great mass of delicate a circumstantial account is given of the execution of lilac and green, and the igloo a brighter note of the same Marshal Ney, and no doubt all suspicions of his subse. color. The dogs, curled up in balls and almost covered quent escape will be set at rest.
by the snow, were so many black spots. The wind blew “ It is impossible that, as is asserted in the book re shrill and chill, and the snow streamed and eddied in ferred to, Ney should have consented to the subterfuge long veils over the lonely desert. The tents flapped like of being shot at by muskets charged with powder alone, great birds alighting, and the wind-gage kept up a mo
notonous tap-tap-tap. The utter loneliness and desolation of the scene were so penetrating that I was glad to creep over the recumbent forms of my companions into the shelter of the sleeping-bag, where I shivered and dozed until the bright sun called us again to life and action."
E have quoted in another department from Presi
dent Charles F. Thwing's article on “ Ohio." In the “ Editor's Study,” Mr. Charles Dudley Warner makes some admiring remarks on the arbitration conference held in Washington in April last, based on its very representative composition and its practical aims.
“On the roll, and taking active part in the proceedings, were statesmen, diplomatists, eminent judges, lawyers of distinction, presidents and professors of col. leges and universities, clergymen of great influence and national reputation, men of affairs and business who control large industrial operations. Hundreds who were unable to attend, but who responded by cordial indorsement of the aims of the conference, are recognized as makers and representatives of public sentiment in their various localities. The movement had the warm sym. pathy of men high in official life, who refrained from active participation mainly because they have later on the responsibility of action, and it was deemed best that the conference should be wholly popular in character, and not be embarrassed by any political predilections. Of all the gatherings in this country for a moral purpose, this assembly was less disturbed than any I have seen by personal 'crankiness' or by eccentricity of speech. The business was kept well in hand, and not allowed to run into visionary projects.”
Mr. Warner thinks that the standing committees of twenty-five representative men, ready to take action in regard to arbitration at any needed time, will do much to stimulate and consolidate public opinion. He says : " The day is near, in general enlightenment, when war cannot be made without the consent of the people, and they are daily learning how little individually they gain by a destructive war, which has to be terminated, after all its loss and agony, by concessions and by treaty."
The Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge writes on “English Elections," with a view to showing that the standards and customs of British hustings are about the same, neither better nor worse than in America. He introduces many incidents of disturbances, of stoning, of hustlings, and assaults, from the staid columns of the Times, and makes an analysis of English election expenditures. He thinks we should draw the moral from them that “ we should seek by every means in our power to remedy any evils in our own system and to guard against all dangers to the ballot-box. But this can best be done by attending to our own affairs, guided by general standards of what is wise and right, and not by nervously and weakly seeking to imitate other people. There is no perfection to be found in English election methods. They have their problems as we have ours. We can manage our own troubles best in our own way, and despite the outcries of the Anglo-Americans in some of our larger cities it may be safely said that English election methods are very much like those of English-speaking people elsewhere, and that human nature is not materially different in England from that in the United States, so far as election contests are concerned."
THE COSMOPOLITAN. N a department of the July Cosmopolitan, “The
Progress of Science," Professor C. A. Young tells of the expeditions which are going from this country to observe the total eclipse of the sun on August 9. The beginning of the eclipse is visible from northern Norway and Finland, and in the afternoon the shadow passes over Yezo, the northern island of Japan. The best point to view the eclipse will be the least accessible districts of Siberia, but several stations will be occupied by Russian astronomers. America is to send two important expeditions ; one of them consisting of nine persons, under the charge of Professor Todd, of Amherst College, sailed from San Francisco in April, in the yacht Coronet, belonging to Mr. A. C. James, who, with his wife, accompanies the party.
“ They carry with them an elaborate and extensive apparatus, photographic, spectroscopic, and polariscopic, to which Harvard College Observatory and Yale College have also contributed. This was brought around the Horn last winter upon the yacht, and the plan is to occupy two, and perhaps three, stations upon the island with the help of such assistants as they will probably be able to find at hand.
“Another party of five goes from the Lick Observatory under the direction of Professor Schaeberle, who was so successful in his photographs of the Chilian eclipse of 1893. He takes as his principal instrument a six-inch photographic lens of forty feet focal length, made by Brashear expressly for the occasion, and expects with this to make large-scale negatives some eighteen inches in diameter. Mr. Burckhalter, on the other hand, is to make pictures of about half that size with a four-inch lens of twenty feet focus, using a special arrangement of his own invention by means of which he hopes so to control the exposure as to obtain a satisfactory representation of the brightest portion of the lower corona and of its fainter outer regions on the same negative-a thing never hitherto accomplished.”
It is worthy of note that both of these elaborate expe. ditions are provided for by private munificence.
Dr. Robert W. Shufeldt, a noted taxidermist and naturalist, describes the modern methods used in “The Preservation of Wild Animals," and the wonderful resources of the taxidermist's art. The advance in taxidermy has been very rapid indeed in the last twelve years, and the work of a quarter of a century ago would now be looked on as mere butchery. In arranging groups such as are seen at the Natural History Museum at South Kensington, the most devoted study is given to mounting the creatures in attitudes of great ease and natural grace. • Aeries of eagles and hawks are first photographed in situ, then the owners are captured and killed, the young or eggs taken, and, finally, the whole affair removed in detail to the hall of the museum where it is to be exhibited, and by the aid of the photograph reconstructed there again in the most natural manner possible.” Even in the facial expression of a large animal the artistic taxidermist carefully concerns himself. The unskilled workman may give, for instance, the face of a tiger a jovial expression, or a melancholy cast, while the artist is careful to leave the beast with exactly the savage aspect of defiance which it bears in life. Dr. Shufeldt thinks there is great need at Washington of a Government Museum devoted to zoology, and equipped with every needful appliance known to modern science, with a full corps of zoologists and artisans to assist them. All the characteristic flora and fauna of varions. parts of the country could be preserved and arranged in the most instructive manner possible. It is of course an added argument for such an institution that the extinction of many important species of animals and of trees, too, is going forward so rapidly.
We have mentioned among the “Leading Articles of the Month” Mr. John Brisben Walker's essay on “The Coming Race.”
which among American children you will find not the smallest trace. It is not a question of industry. The juvenile American is as willing to learn and as quick about it as any other. It is a matter of mental attitude. The school-room where European children acquire the rudiments of education is, in some unanalyzable way, a quieter, remoter spot ; one more shut off from the distractions that come from without ; and, notably, more serious. Learning may look to the youthful minds within those walls to be a dull thing, but it is certain, without their being aware of it, to seem a dignified thing. And the routine has a repose that gradually acts upon the juvenile scholar until it shapes him to this applicationto a mood of patient attentiveness and a sort of ruminating receptivity, that, so far as ultimate fruitfulness is concerned, may, in every instance, be safely preferred to all the precocious personal brightness' and 'alert. ness' in the world. The European methods of primary instruction, in short, proceed on the idea that children are young plants that develop by passive absorption, in the right conditions of growth, as a peach ripens against a southern wall."
MCCLURE'S. E have quoted among the “Leading Articles of
N the July Scribner's Mr. J. Carter Beard tells about
"A New Art,” by which he means the art of taxidermy, the subject which Dr. Shufeldt also writes about in the Cosmopolitan. Mr. Beard, as an artist who has made his specialty the delineation of animals, can look at it from two points of view. He says : “The taxidermist, unlike the sculptor or painter, can claim no allowance on account of the necessary limitations of his means of expression, or the material with which he works ; explicit statement rather than suggestion, reconstruction and not idealization, is the aim and purpose of his work, and in its perfection it cannot stop short in any. thing but actual life and motion, of an absolute counterfeit of nature. There can be no impressionism in taxi. dermy. The mechanical difficulties in the way of such perfection are, I am assured, very great. The sculptor has but to give his plastic wax or clay the slightest touch, it yields and retains the impress of contact, but the fresh pelt, pulled, hammered, and molded into shape by main force, shrinks in drying, and shrinking bridges over depressions and distorts delicate and careful model. ling, especially about the mouth, eyes, and ears. No rapid or easy method has been invented to overcome ihis difficulty, and the taxidermist who produces the first specimen involving the subtile and perfect representation of external anatomy of a subject can scarcely expect to receive an adequate remuneration for his labor."
Sir Martin Conway has a paper entitled • A Thousand Miles Through the Alps," illustrated with some fine pictures of mountain climbing scenes. He bewails the loss of mystery which the Alps have suffered-none but climb. ers know how completely. Every mountain and point of view of even third rate importance has been ascended, most by many routes. Almost every gap between two peaks has been traversed as a pass. The publications of some dozen mountaineering societies have recorded these countless expeditions in rows of volumes of appalling length.
“Of late years vigorous attempts have been made to co-ordinate this mass of material in the form of Climbers' Guides, dealing with particular districts, wherein every peak and pass is dealt with in strict geographical succession and every different route and a!l the variations of each route are set forth, with references to the volumes in which they have been described at length by their discoverers. Nearly half the Alps has been treated in this manner, but the work has taken ten years, and of course the whole requires periodical revision."
The writer in “ 'The Point of View" contrasts primary education in America with its analogy in England, to the disadvantage of our reputation for educational thoroughness.
“One cannot have had any experience of the instruction of European boys and girls without being conscious of the radical contrast between the spirit of the elementary school-room abroad and in this country. There is among the little people abroad a peculiar sort of application of
“Kipling in India," and Cleveland Moffett's on horseless carriages, appearing in the July McClure's.
Mrs. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps-Ward comes this month, in the course of her biography, to Longfellow, Whittier and Holmes, who make an exceptionally interesting chapter. She says of Whittier that notwithstanding his shy and retiring disposition, which made a new interior an insurmountable trouble to him," he was full of frolic, in his gentle way. “No one of the world's people ever had a keener sense of humor. From every interview with him one carried away a good story, or a sense of having had a good time; he never darkened the day or shadowed the heart." Mrs. Ward tells how when she was in a box at the theatre with Longfellow she saw the tears falling from the poet's face in the sad passages of " Hazel Kirke." " He made no effort to conceal or to check them ; indeed, I think he was unconscious of them. He noticed none of us ; but gave his heart up to the human passion of the little play, with a simplicity and genuineness touching to see.
In a chapter of the series on “ A Century of Painting," Mr. Will H. Low says of Adolph Menzel: “Identified as he is with Germany, a Teuton of the Teutons, he shares with Meissonier the right of being considered one of the two great little masters of the century." Mr. Low regards as the keynote to Menzel's work the illustrations to the life of Frederick the Great which first made him known.
NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE. ‘HE July New England Magazine begins with an ac.
count by William I. Cole of the pleasant institution of “ Country Week.” This custom of arranging a week or so in the country for the poor children of the city originated in the early seventies in Copenhagen, and when an account was copied into an American news. paper, it came to the eye of the Rev. W. H. Gannett, of Boston. With the aid of his sister, Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells, this gentleman sent circulars to a number of country ministers asking for the names and addresses of people willing to take charge for a week or fortnight, as guests or as boarders at the nominal cost of hospitality,