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investigations are—by a theory, but it was service and fuel brought the total cost not vitiated, as so many investigations are, to 6 cents-or nearly half a cent more by a greater concern for the theory than than the baker charged. In the case for the facts. The committee felt that of meat, on the other hand, fuel and the solution for the problem of domestic service added only one-fifth to the cost servitude—so embarrassing in democratic of material, and meat cooked at home communities-lay in the continued trans- was a full third cheaper than meat bought fer of work from dependent producers ready cooked. What was true of meat within the household to independent was approximately true of entire dinners. workers without. The fact that the old A large family living near the New household industries of spinning, weaving, England Kitchen had their meals supplied the curing of meat, and latterly the wash- from that quarter for several days, and ing of clothes and cleaning of carpets, had then the same meals cooked at home for passed or were passing into the hands as many more, and repeated the experiof outside workers had been duly noted, ment half a dozen times. Some things and the committee wished to ascertain to were supplied almost as cheaply from what extent it was already economical to the outside “kitchen" as from that in have cooking transferred in the same way. the household, but, on the whole, the The chief difficulty confronted lay, of average cost of food for each person was course, in the necessity of estimating the 16 cents per meal when it was prepared cost of the labor performed in the kitchen, at home, and 25 cents when bought the cost of the fuel used in preparing the ready cooked. The committee recogfood, and the expense for wear and tear nizes that its figures are not applicable to on stoves and pots and pans that ought all families, since some would be at the finally to be added to the apparent expense same expense for servants even if they of home-cooked foods. This last item the had their cooking done outside. But committee was finally obliged to ignore over against these families are others because no figures of any value could which, by the purchase of some readybe obtained. As to the cost of labor, cooked foods, can dispense with a servant the committee reckoned that well-to-do altogether. Families which wish to do city families pay a servant $4 a week in their own work must often reckon labor wages, $3 a week in food and other sup- at more than 872 cents an hour, and as plies, making all told $7 a week, or about the number of such families tends to 872 cents an hour for the working time. increase with the increasing cost and irkAs to the cost of fuel, the committee found someness of domestic service, the demand by experiment that a coal stove cost 16 for food cooked outside the household cents a day, an oil stove 17 cents, and a may increase as rapidly as the demand gas stove 27 cents, if no allowance was for food that is baked or cured or canned made for the labor of caring for the fires outside the household has increased in and cleaning the stoves; but that if this the past. With the increase in the de labor was charged for at 872 cents an mand for food prepared, or partly prehour, the coal stove cost 23 cents a day, pared, outside the household, there is certhe oil stove 24 cents, and the gas stove 30 tain to come, not only an increase in the cents. The gas used cost $1 a thousand supply, but a cheapening and bettering of feet, so that the experiments indicated that the service. with gas at 75 cents a thousand—the price in Wheeling under public ownership and
The work at Hamp
The Hampton in Cleveland under private ownership - Summer Normal Institute ton grows broader gas would be as cheap a cooking fuel as
and deeper year by coal.
year. Recognizing the importance of
having in the elementary schools for As to the cost of food, colored children the best-equipped teachHome-Cooked vs. Purchased Food
the committee found that ers, Hampton has held for the last few
there is already a slight years a summer normal school for the economy in buying bread of the baker, iraining of such teachers. This summer for although the materials cost only 3 school aims to give to these colored teachcents a pound for a home-baked loaf, ers, especially those who have not received
a normal school training, the latest and that the instructed disciple of the Kingmost approved methods of teaching and dom brings both old and new things school management. The steady increase
The steady increase from the treasury of truth, he put forin numbers and the wider mental view of ward the old doctrines of the divine those who attend from the various sec- sovereignty and the atoning cross, and tions of the country, particularly from the called for a new separation of the church South, indicate the success of this summer from the world, with effort to school. The session just closed reach the unreached masses. The Rev. the most successful one yet held both Samuel Chadwick, of Leeds, England, a in point of numbers and work accom: new accession to the Northfield platform, plished. There were three hundred and also attracted marked interest. One of forty-seven teachers in attendance from the younger ministers of British Weslertwelve States, two Territories, and the ans, he has won regard by his efficiency District of Columbia, the largest number in evangelistic work and as a Biblical coming from Virginia. A hundred and preacher. Among prominent features of ninety-four teachers, following the educa- the conference were Professor Towner's tional trend of the times, took work in Musical Institute, dealing with music industrial subjects. These studies were specially in its relation to Christian work. upholstery, sewing, cooking, dairy hus- and Dr. Torrey's Institute of Christian bandry, sloyd, basketry, and agriculture. Doctrine, a series of addresses on the To acquaint their pupils during the coming fundamental truths. In these two lecschool session more with things than turers Mr. Moody's Bible Institute at Chiwords, to develop in them a proper appre cago, where thirty-five hundred men and ciation of serviceable handiwork studies women have received training in the twelve that may have a ready commercial value years of its existence, was strongly reprein adult life, seemed to be the desire of sented. Professor Towner pronounced the teachers who took the industrial sub- strongly for the chorus choir and against jects. These subjects were supplemented the quartette : “ Never have it,” said he of by academic work in elementary and the latter. “Missionary Day,” August 12, advanced English, school economics, psy- when nearly ninety missionaries were preschciogy, civics, experimental physics, ent, was prolonged from the early prayerprimary methods, free-hand drawing, arith meeting at 6:30 to the end of the evening. metic, and business forms and methods. Mr. S. B. Capen, President of the AmeriA suggestive course in American history can Board, spoke at the twilight meeting was given, the object of which was to on “ Foreign Missions as an Investment develop race consciousness through the from a Layman's Point of View.” Instudy of negro history in its relation to the stances are not wanting of manufacturers National life. The course, quite novel in who have been made contributors to subject, “ Negro Ideals,” evoked consider- missions by discovering that a demand able enthusiasm. Drs. Frissell, of Hamp- springs up for the tools and products of ton, and Southall, the Superintendent of civilization where the missionary has Public · Instruction for Virginia, have carried new light and life into dark and shown deep interest in the growth of this stagnant communities. In connection summer institute that will help in a wise with the Conference, a Young People's way to solve the problem of the common Institute, as for several years past, school of the South for the negro child. attracted many representatives of young
people's societies, and a Post-Graduate While the usual large Conference, directed by Messrs. Morgan The Northfield General Conference attendance was apparent and Chadwick, followed it for the week
this year, there seemed ending August 26. to be a larger number than usual of ministers in company with members of their
The New Life in Japan
A luminous account churches. Special interest, of course,
of the general adcentered in the new leader, the Rev. vance recently made in the Island Empire G. Campbell Morgan, Mr. Moody's chosen is presented in a pamphlet by the Rev, successor. Taking for the text of a power- D. C. Greene, a missionary there in the ful opening address the saying of Jesus service of the American Board. The
census shows that the population, now charitable work is expanding, and the about forty-four millions, has increased national conscience extends its criticism nearly fifteen per cent. in eleven years, or into fields formerly outside its view. The rather more than half the rate at which our lot of the lowly, the despised, the outcast, own has increased in ten years, with all the now appeals to a new public sentiment, advantage of our large immigration-the which gives them the benefit of a more increase of the city population being about favorable interpretation and a more effectthree times that of the Empire as a whole. ive administration of the law. Politically, The productiveness of the land has in the reign of the common people seems creased still more largely. Industrial and still far off, but a gradual democratizing commercial growth has been vastly greater. is apparent.
The number of persons From 1884 to 1898 manufacturing com- entitled to vote in national elections is panies increased from less than four hun- still but a million.
But for local elections dred to over two thousand, and their a recent law, by lowering the property aggregate capital from five million to a qualification, has increased the electorate hundred and twenty-two million yen (the from less than half a million to over two yen is equal to about eighty-eight cents). millions. The same law has introduced Commercial companies multiplied from with equitable results the principle of some six hundred and fifty to over four minority representation, which even we thousand, and their capital from about have not yet attained to. In the present nine million yen to three hundred million. House of Representatives the commoners Transportation companies grew from outnumber the gentry three to one, and about two hundred to over five hundred the distinction between the two classes, and thirty, with a growth of capital from says Dr. Greene, “is slowly but surely about seven million yen to nearly two passing away.” hundred million. In education a similar expansion has taken place, especially in
The advance of Christhe universities, the middle schools, and
Christianity in Japan tianity in Japan is evithe girls' schools, the last showing over dently not to be measured by the present eight thousand pupils in 1898 to about number of its enrolled adherents. These thirty-two hundred in 1889. The attend- are but about one hundred and twenty ance at the primary schools has risen thousand, nearly one-third of them Protfrom three million to four, and will in- estants, the rest divided between the crease now more rapidly because of the Greek and the Roman Church in the recent abolition of the fees hitherto paid. ratio of about one to two. But in the That the common people prize the oppor- successive Diets the Christians have never tunities of culture appears from the fact had less than four times their proportional that in the universities they already out. number of members. In the present Diet number the gentry and the nobles together. they have thirteen members, besides the Dr. Greene mentions having overheard Speaker, and among them some of the two coolies discussing the questions at most efficient men. " One of them was issue in our Presidential campaign. The elected in a strongly Buddhist district by a door is now open through the schools for majority of five to one.” Last year, in those once destined to be serfs to reach the Executive Committee of the Liberal the highest stations in military or politi- party, two of its three members were cal life. That the reading population has Christians; and this year one of the three. vastly increased appears in the nearly Three per cent. of the officers of the army eightfold increase of newspapers and are said to be Christians, and a goodly magazines since 1884. Whether an ethi. proportion also of naval officers.
The cal advance has taken place has been late Rear-Admiral Serata was an ardent doubted or denied by many. Dr. Greene and active Christian. Christians in ab. admits the existence of serious evils, but normal numbers abound in the universi. observes that the laws take more cogni- ties and Government colleges, among both zance of them, and public opinion visits students and instructors. Not less than sharper censure on them. On one hand, three of the great dailies of Tokio are he finds that life and property were never Jargely in Christian hands, and Christians So secure as now. On the other hand, are at the head of editorial departments in several others. A very large volume not bear the impress of reliability. In of charitable work and the most success- the first place, it is not made at the right ful charitable institutions are also under time, or in the right manner, to convince Christian management. From twenty-five the public that any such plan has actually hundred to three thousand youth pass been adopted. In the second place, the every year out of Christian schools, where reference to the “great success of profitthey have averaged four years spent under sharing in the Carnegie Company” is Christian influences. The effect of this a reference to a form of philanthropy on public opinion is shown by Buddhist which the Carnegie Company never proimitators, who undertake to form young fessed to have adopted. In the third men's associations, women's and children's place—and this is really the most unforsocieties, and to organize charitable insti- tunate feature of it all—it is doubtful if tutions and schools according to Christian the stock of the Steel Trust could be sold patterns. Public sentiment favors a Relig- to the employees and held by them, howions Bill, which Dr. Greene expects will ever generous might be the intentions of ere long be passed, making Shintoism, the managers. Buddhism, and Christianity equal before Gigantic concerns like the Steel Trust, the law. Quite recently Christian schools whose securities are listed on the stock have been relieved of some serious dis- exchanges, are the very last in which abilities. Since the incorporation of Japan workmen can become part owners and with the civilized world she has been managers. If the trust stock represented affected by the various currents of thought only the capital invested in the plants, the observable elsewhere in that world. Politi- situation would be better, since neither cally, the intense nationalism of the Japan- hard times nor the re-establishment of ese, and the reaction of many liberally competition could take away its entire educated men against party government, value, and the investment might be conreproduce phenomena noticeable even in sidered safe. But even safe investments the United States and Great Britain. in stock exchange securities are not often Religiously, the churches of Japan have attractive to working people, since they felt, like those of the West, a temporary yield their possessors barely five per cent. check during the process of readjusting on their market value, and workingmen Christian doctrines to modern science and with a few hundred dollars ahead will not philosophy—a check which appears to have invest in five per cent. securities on the reached its limit in the beginning, which stock exchange when they can realize ten we recently reported, of a great revival. per cent. through owning instead of renting
their homes. Even those who already own
their homes will not put their surplus into Trust Employees as Stock- stock exchange securities when they holders
so easily realize eight per cent. by renting
homes to others, if they devote their attenA New York newspaper which favors tion to looking closely after their property. the Steel Trust in the present controversy To sell these workmen stock at “ inside announces that the head of the Trust at prices ” would be at best a temporary the time of its organization set aside sev- expedient, for even if the workmen—and eral million dollars' worth of stock to be not outsiders in their name—took the sold to employees “at inside prices,” so stock offered at less than the market price, as to create a labor union of an ideal they could not be kept from selling it at type-a union in which the members the market price as soon as they wanted would share the profits as well as the the money for something else. Even, wages of the concern they manned. The therefore, if the trust stocks were as plan was adopted, says this newspaper, secure investments as the bonds which because of the “great success of profit. Mr. Carnegie took in payment for his sharing in the Carnegie Company," and interests, it would not be an investment its execution was merely postponed for a which wage-earners could be asked to couple of years, until the affairs of the hold. For the present, indeed, most trust Trust were in a more settled running order. stocks are paying more than five per
Unfortunately, this announcement does cent. on their market value (and far more than five per cent. on the original value who object to laborers becoming capitalists, of the plants they represent), but these for fear that the ownership of property higher rates of interest, as Emerson put will create conservatism. There are also it, are but the measure of the insecurity keen and cold reactionaries who prefer to of the principal. Such investments should have laborers dependent, because such be touched by those only who can afford laborers can least offer resistance to any to lose. They are the last that should be treatment offered them. But to publiccommended to wage-earners, who, it has spiri ed men who care for the orderly betbeen observed, are led to begin saving, not tering of social conditions, the advance by high rates of interest, but by the cer- of wage-earners to the position of small tainty that their savings will be at their property owners, and their further advance call in time of need. Mr. Carnegie rec- into an interest in the management of the ognized this principle in 1889 when, in concerns they work for, are steps of incallieu of profit-sharing, he established a culable importance. Only through such savings fund in which the workmen in advances can the mass of the people get all his mills could make deposits ranging the training in the management of indusfrom three dollars to two thousand dollars, trial affairs that is essential to competent and have them cared for without charge management of the affairs of the Nation. for clerical service. The rate of interest More than this, only through such adwas generously fixed at six per cent., though vances can the spirit of class conflict be this was a point of minor importance, avoided. America owes much of its progsince the rate of interest does not begin ress in the past to the fact that there have to concern depositors until several hun-been-apart from the curse of slaverydred dollars have already been laid by. no caste lines and no rigid class lines. The Carnegie savings fund was a distinct On the farms, in the stores, and in the success, and in 1898, according to Mr. N. P. shops men have been continually passing Gilman's “ Dividend to Labor," over a over from the ranks of workers to the million dollars stood to the credit of em- ranks of owners, and the larger part of the ployees. Meanwhile, over a half-million people have been at once capitalists and dollars had been lent on mortgage to laborers. By reason of this condition, the employees who wished homes of their creation of class antagonisms has been own, and thus the great corporation had made impossible. It is the duty of the done a work almost equal to that which new industrial organizations to devise many small manufacturers have done methods by which they, too, may prevent when they have organized building and the development of hostile classes. loan associations among their employees, or have looked after the legal side of purchases of land.
The Real Conquerors There are many ways in which even the greatest corporations may help their Among the many admirable inscripemployees to achieve industrial independ- tions which may be seen at the Panence, even though the ownership of their American Exposition is one which finds a securities by their employees is out of the place on a panel in the Stadium, the sigquestion. Profit-sharing does, indeed, yield nificance of which, for the place and for a less direct return in the case of such the larger arena of life, is evident at the corporations than in that of small firms, in first reading : which the quality of each man's work is so He who fails bravely has not truly failed, but important a factor in the aggregate output.
is himself also a conqueror ! But even in the greatest corporations a Those who assume that success means share in the profits can produce a better positive achievement in some visible, spirit, and produce at least a slight better- tangible, and generally material form fail ment in the general quality of labor. The to understand that the visible, tangible, ideal of a capital-and-labor union, such as material things are in many cases only the reported plan of the Steel Trust sug- the evidences of success, and that success gests, is one to be diligently cherished by lies in that which has come to the worker all who would avoid class conflicts. There in his achievement. The finest element are, indeed, keen and cold revolutionists in success is its reactionary influence on