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will disagree, that the United States did not become a nation until after the war; and Professor Paxson's that the new nation which has appeared since the war "has been only accidentally connected with that catastrophe." In broad outline this may be true, but in detail the theory would probably fail to account for some characteristic features of our national development. EUGENE C. BARKER. University of Texas.


LISTED BY CHARLES A. COULOmb, Pí.D. Through a typographical error, the title of Dr. Herbert A. Gibbons' recent work was given in these columns last month as "The blackest page in modern history; events in America in 1915." The correct title is "The blackest page in modern history; events in Armenia in 1915."

American History.

Adams, Charles J., compiler and editor. Quabaug, 16601910; an account of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary celebration. Worcester, Mass.: Davis Press. 127 pp. $1.00 net.

Bayles, W. Harrison. Old taverns of New York. New York: F. Allaben Genea. Co.: [30 E. 42d St.]. 505 pp. $2.50, net.

Burgess, John W. The administration of President Hayes. N. Y.: Scribner. 150 pp. $1.00, net.

De la Hunt, T. J. Perry County [Indiana], a history. Indianapolis: W. K. Stewart Co. 359 pp. $2.50, net. Eckenrode, Hamilton J. The Revolution in Virginia. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin. 311 pp. $2.00, net. Evjen, John O., Ph.D. Scandinavian Immigrants in New York, 1630-1674. With appendices on Scandinavians in Mexico and South America, 1532-40; Scandinavians in Canada, 1619-20; some Scandinavians in New York in the 18th century; German immigrants in New York, 1630-74. Illustrated. χχίν. 438 pp. Minneapolis,

Minn.: K. K. Holter Publ. Co. $2.50. Hawthorne, Julian, and Reynolds, F. J. The history of the United States from 1492 to 1915. In 3 vols. N. Y.: P. T. Collier & Son. $2.25.

Hoes, Mrs. Rose G. Catalogue of American historical costumes. Wash., D. C.: [The Author]. 76 pp. 50 cents. Johnson, Emory R., and others. History of the domestic and foreign commerce of the United States. In 2 vols. Wash., D. C.: Carnegie Inst. 363, 398 pp. $6.00. Manning, William R. Early diplomatic relations between the United States and Mexico. Balto.: Johns Hopkins Press. 418 pp. $2.25.

Matthews, Franklin. Our navy in time of war (18611915). N. Y.: Appleton. 287 pp. 75 cents, net. Richard, Edouard. Acadie; reconstitution d'un chapitre perdu de l'histoire d'Amerique. In 3 vols. Boston: Marlier Pub. Co., 21-29 Harrison Ave. $2.50. Roman, Charles V. American civilization and the negro. Phila. F. A. Davis Co. 434 pp. $2.50, net. Sabin, H., and Sabin, E. K. The making of Iowa. Chicago: Flanagan. 284 pp. 60 cents.

Sams, Conway W. The conquest of Virginia. [An account of the Indians of Virginia.] N. Y.: Putnam. 432 pp. $3.50, net.

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English History.

Meyer, Arnold O. England and the Catholic Church under Queen Elizabeth. St. Louis: Herder. 555 pp. $3.60, net.

Schmitt, Bernadotte E. England and Germany, 1740-1914. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton Univ. Press. 524 pp. $2.00, net. Strachey, Roy, and Strachey, Oliver. Keigwin's rebellion (1683-84), an episode in the history of Bombay. N. Y.: Oxford Univ. 184 pp. $2.50, net.

European History.

Björkman, Edwin A., and others. Ukraine's claim to freedom. [Jersey City, N. J.: Ukrainian Natl. Asso.] 125 pp. (4 pp. bibls.). 50 cents.

de Wesselitsky, G. Russia and democracy. N. Y.: Duffield. 96 pp. 75 cents, net.

Ellis, E. S., and Keller, A. R., editors. History of the German people. In 16 vols. N. Y.: Internat. Hist. Soc., 171 Madison Ave. Each $2.25.

Fox, Frank. The Balkan peninsula. N. Y.: Macmillan. 213 pp. $3.00, net.

Marvin, Francis S., editor. The unity of Western civilization. N. Y.: Oxford University. 315 pp. $2.50, net. Oak leaves; gleanings from German history. Vol. 1, No. 2. St. Louis: Herder. 10 cents.

Pears, Sir Edwin. Forty years in Constantinople (18731915). N. Y.: Appleton. 390 pp. $5.00, net. Stanoyevich, Milivoy S. Russian foreign policy in the East. Oakland, Cal.: Liberty Pub. Co. [1425 Alice St.]. 38 pp. (9 pp. bibls.). 50 cents.

Young, Gen. Geo. F. East and West through fifteen centuries; being a general history from B.C. 44 to A.D. 1453. In 4 vols. Vols. 1 and 2, 44 B.C. to 740 A.D. N. Y.: Longmans. 612, 674 pp. $12.00, net.

The War

Aitken, Sir William
Doran. 245 pp.
Baldwin, James M. France and the War. N. Y.: Apple-
ton. 62 pp. 50 cents, net.

M. Canada in Flanders. N. Y.: 50 cents, net.

Geouffre de Lapradelle, Albert, and Coudert, F. R., editors. War letters from France. N. Y.: Appleton. 107 pp. 50 cents net.

Germany. The Belgian people's war; a violation of international law; from the German white book. N. Y.: K. A. Fuehr. 135 pp.

Hale, Walter. By motor to the firing line. N. Y.: Century Co. 283 pp. $1.50, net.

Halm, Karl. Der Freiheitskampf der Deutschen Nation. [Los Angeles, Cal.: German Austrian Defense.] 64 pp. 15 cents.

Haw, George W., compiler and editor. War echoes; or Germany and Austria in the crisis. Chicago [Open Court]. 368 pp. $1.25, net.

Hugins, Roland. Germany misjudged. Chicago: Open Court. 111 pp. $1.00, net.

Labberton, J. H. Belgium and Germany. Chicago: Open Court. 153 pp. $1.00, net.

Morgan, John H. Leaves from a field notebook. [Personal narrative of European war.] N. Y.: Macmillan. 296 pp. $1.50, net.

O'Neill, Elizabeth. The war, 1915; a history and an explanation for boys and girls. N. Y.: Stokes. 86 pp. 60 cents, net.

Protheroe, Ernest. . . . The life story of Edith Cavell.
N. Y.: Abingdon Press. 170 pp. 40 cents, net.
Robinson, William J. My fourteen months at the front.
Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 201 pp. $1.00, net.
Ruhl, Arthur. Antwerp to Gallipoli. N. Y.: Scribner.
304 pp. $1.50, net.

Washburn, Stanley. Victory in defeat; the agony of Warsaw and the Russian retreat. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday Page. 180 pp. $1.00, net.

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Volume VII. Number 7.


$2.00 a year. 20 cents a copy.

Teaching the History of the New South


Quite apart from the general profit that is to be derived from acquiring a knowledge of environments other than one's own, an investigation of the history of the new South ought to have, for the boys and girls of other parts of the United States, an interest and importance that are distinct and peculiar. If, in the present war in Europe, we have been stirred by examples of brave resistance to adversity and moved 3 by the accounts of destruction and desolation, and if the question of the reconstruction of Europe and the fate of the conquered people is already in our minds, then surely the story of the rehabilitation of part of cur own people and the consideration of these special problems, must make an appeal to the historicallyminded and must receive from text-books and teachers somewhat extended treatment as a topic of recent history. The political history of reconstruction has been narrated from many points of view, both with reference to the period as a whole and with regard to particular States; but the vast social and economic changes, which beginning in the reconstruction time are still in progress, usually receive in our text-books less attention. Our boys and girls study carefully the work of the Gracchi, the organization of the medieval manor, the effects of inclosures in England, and the condition of the peasants in France before the revolution. Is it not possible to awaken an intelligent interest in the tasks with which emancipation and the industrial revolution have confronted the people of the South?

To point out to teachers some of the more important phases of this topic and to make some suggestions as to the literature to be consulted, constitute the purpose of the present paper. While some retrospect is necessary the period of time covered is principally that which began with the close of the reconstruction era, at the time when the South was permitted once more to exercise self-government, and when some progress had been made toward repairing the economic losses of the war.1

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1 With regard to the background of the "general history of the United States during this period, it is assumed that the reader is acquainted with the papers which have appeared in the earlier numbers of the HISTORY TEACHER'S MAGAZINE, Vol. 7, especially with F. L. Paxson's The Study of Recent American History" in the March number, pp. 75-80. This includes an excellent list of references. Therefore references to the "American Nation" and to the works of Beard and others on recent history are here omitted.

At the outset, the reader must be warned against three possible misconceptions. (1) The uniqueness of any section may easily be exaggerated. In no case is this more true than in that of the South. The progress "that I shall discuss later is a phenomenon which the southern people share with all the people of the United States. If the agriculture and the manufactures of the South have greatly increased, so have the agriculture and the manufactures of other regions. If the South has better schools and more of them than it formerly had, so has the West. While the South is especially indebted to northern capital, in the constant shifting of population which characterizes the United States the southern States have given more people to other sections than they have received. The influence of southerners in the North, especially in New York, and of northerners in the South, while incapable of exact statement, is an important factor in establishing a common understanding. The same language, religious and legal ideas held in common, inter-state business and commerce, the workings of the Federal Government-a thousand things tend to nationality and uniformity for one that tends to separation. From this point of view it might seem illogical to treat of the New South in a separate paper, when the new South is growing with and in the new nation. But in what follows we shall see that there is quite enough of a distinction to justify our topic. It is only exaggeration that must be avoided.

(2) The teacher must establish in his or her mind a proper balance with regard to the unity within the South. A review of the physical geography of the southern States, already studied, it is to be hoped, for the history of the Colonial Period, for the Westward Movement, and for the War and Reconstruction

-will show what a land of contrasts the Southland is. Except in the one characteristic of political solidarity where the question of white self-government may be concerned, the South is a very indefinite term.

Besides the cotton belt there are sugar regions and rice districts and tobacco fields, and as will appear below, the South raises a considerable proportion of the grain crops of the United States. There are several great sea ports where the water is about as salt as in sea ports elsewhere. Much of the South lies near the sea level; yet the Allegheny Mountains reach into the heart of the South to raise some of their highest peaks. In many respects the common western characteristics of the southern States in the Mississippi Valley, as distinguished from those of the Atlantic sea

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