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and a double wall. Its pop- independence against the whole ulation was increased, by an force of the Ottoman empire, influx of pilgrims and fugitives, till the year 1775, when he and the trade of the east and was basely assassinated, by or. west was attracted to this con- der of the Ottoman porte, at venient station. The city was the advanced age of eighty-six besieged by Turks under Sul. years. The new city is smaltan Khalil, at the head of a ler than the old; its inhabitants, large army, furnished with a lately, were forty thousand. tremendous train of artillery. The Greeks have here two After a seige of thirty-three churches, the Latins three, the days, the double wall was Maronites one, it is a bishop's forced by the Moslems, the see. The Jews have one principal tower yielded to their small synagogue, the Mahomengines, and the city was en

etans three mosques.

Acre tirely destroyed, May, 19, has been rendered, by the 1291. Sixty thousand Chris- works of Dijezzar, one of the tians were devoted to death or principal towns on the coast. slavery; a miserable remnant The mosques of this Pacha with the king of Jerusalem, are much admired. The Bathe patriarch, and the great zar, or covered market, is not master of the hospital, Aed to inferior to the bazars of Aleppo, the sea shore, and escaped to and its public fountain is supeCyprus. It was famous in the rior in elegance to those of time of the Crusades. Here Damascus. The widest street Edward I, was wounded by a is completely filled by a pass. poisoned arrow; he was cured ing camel; the place is unby his wife Eleanor, who suck: healthy; it has lately been ed the poison from his veins. brought into notice by the After the expulsion of the cru. siege of Bonaparte and his resaders, Acre exhibited a scene pulse by Sir Sidney Smith, a of magnificent ruins, and re- celebrated English officer, in mained in a degree deserted, 1798. The principal articles and desolated, till about the of commerce at Acre are corn year 1750, when it was fortifi- and cotton: but the trade is moed, by Dahier, an Arabian nopolized by the Pacha in his Sheick, who obtained the ap- own hands. The French have pellation of Prince of St. John usually a consul in this place, of Acre, and maintained his and Russia a resident. It is

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XV, 22.

twenty-seven miles south of ADAMAH, or ADMAH, Tyre, seventy north of Jerusa- one of the five wicked cities, lem, eighty-two west of Damas- which were destroyed by fire cus, lat. 32, 40, north, long. from heaven, and buried un39, 25, east. I only add that der the waters of the Dead Sea, the port of Acre is one of the (Gen. xiv, 2; and Deut. xxii, best on the coast; the town shel- 23.) It was the most easterly ters it from the north and north of all those, which was swallowwest winds. The fortifications ed up, and there is some probat present are of no great im- ability that it was not entirely portance. Mount Carinel, sunk under the waters; or that which commands the town to the inhabitants of the country the south, is a Aattened cone, built a new city of the same very rocky, 2,000 feet high. name upon the eastern shore Mariti

, D'Anville, &c. of the Dead Sea; for Isaiah, acADADA, a city in the cording to the Septuagint says, southern part of Judea. Josh. 'God will destroy the Moab.

ites, the city of Ar, and the ADAD-RIMMON, or Ha- remnant of Adamah.' DAD-RIMMON, a city in the ADAMAH, was also a city valley of Jezreel, (2 Kings of the tribe of Naphtali, (Josh. xxiii, 29.) There the fatal xix, 36.) The Septuagint, battle was fought in which Jo- call it Armath, and the Vula siah, king of Judah, was killed gate, Edema. by the forces of Pharoah-Ne ADASA, was a city of Cacho, king of Egypt. It is sit- naan, in the tribe of Ephraim, uated ten miles from Jezreel, Lat. 33. and seventeen from Cæsarea in ADIDA, a city of Judah, at Palestine.

which place Simeon Macca. ADAM, or ADOM, (Josh. bæus encamped, in order to iii, 16;) a city situated on the dispute the entrance into the banks of the River Jordan, to- country with Tryphon, who wards the south of the sea, had treacherously seized on his Cinnereth or Galilee. In the brother Jonathan at Ptolemais. vicinity of this town, the wa. Both Eusebius and Jerome tell ters of the Jordan were arrest. us, that all the open plain ed, that the Israelites might about Eleutheropolis north and pass over the channel on dry west, was in their time called ground.

Sephela. And in 1 Macab.

xii, 38, it is said, that Simeon which in his time was called “set up Adida in Sephela, ard the Adriatic sea. The whole made it strong with gates and sea adjacent to Sicily, the Ionibars.” Lat. 31, 44.

an, and Tuscan seas, on the ADITHA, or ADATHA, a south-west of Italy, were calcity belonging to the tribe of led Adria. Judah, (Josh. xv, 36.)

ADRUMETUM, or AD. ADORAIM, a town of Palestine in the tribe of Judah, in Africa, capital of the prov,

RAMYTTIUM, a city of Lybia fortified by Rehoboam. ADRIA, a city upon the

ince of Byzantium We read Tartario in the state of Venice. in the Acts of the Apostles, It gives name to the Adriatic. (xvii

, 1, 2;) that St. Paul in

his first voyage to Italy, em : sea, which is sometimes called

barked in a vessel that was Adria, as, in Acts xxvii, 27.

But ADRIA, the Adriatic sea. Calmet, Wells, and Whitby,

going to Adrumetum. Here the ship in which St. think it much more probable, Paul was a prisoner was over.

that we should read Adramtaken with a dreadful storm. myttium in the text, because we Fearing they should fall upon know St. Paul was going into the quicksands, they struck sail, Asia, as St. Luke testifies; and and let their ship drive. This Adraminyttium was a maritime tempest continued a whole fortnight. It has with some

town of Myssia in Asia Minor, propriety been asked how this over against the island of Les. ship, tossed up and down the bos, at the foot of mount Ida. Adriatic, should drive on the ADULLAM, a city belongisland of Malta. The easy ing to the tribe of Judah, (Josh. solution is, that anciently this XV, 35;) situated in the southname extended beyond the ern part of this tribe and west limits of the Adriatic gulf, and from Hebron toward the Dead was given to an indeterminate sea. Rehoboam rebuilt this portion of the sea, as we now place, and strengthened it with say the Levant, &c. Ptolemy good fortifications, (Chron. says that Sicily was bounded xi, 7, 8;) Eusebius says that in east by the Adriatic, that Crete his time, it was a large town, was washed on the west by the ten miles from Eleutheropolis, Adriatic, and Strabo says that eastward. Jerom says that in the Ionian gulf is a part of that, his day it was not a small town.

Judas Maccabæus, encamped the country between the Euin the , plain of Adullam, and plirates and the river of Egypt. there passed the Sabbath-day, Some have thought this was (2 Macc. xii, 38.) Joshua kill- the Nile, but evidence is wanted the king of Adullam, (xii, ing, that the territories of Israel 15.) David hid himself in the ever did extend to the Nile. cave of Adullam, (1 Sam.xxii, 1, It seems that the river of E2,&c.) and here his parents,and gypt was a small stream, for a number of valiant mien re. the Scriptures call the Euphrapaired to him. This place, tes a great river compared with once called the glory of Israel, this; but this is not true, if the has long been reduced to ruins. Nile be intended. See EGYPT, In most of the mountains of RIVER OF. Lat. 31, 10. Canaan were caverns, where in ZELMOR, a sacerdotal city time of war the people con- in the tribe of Benjamin. cealed themselves. Kimpton. ÆNAM, or Ænan a town

ADUMMIM, a town and of Canaan, in the time of the mountain in the tribe of Benja- patriarchs, but a deserted place min. Josh.xv,9;xviii, 17. Some in the fourth century. It stood place it to the south, oiners to on the road to Timnath, which the north of Jericho. It is sup. was a considerable village, beposed, that this town is on the tween Jerusalem and Diospolis. road from Jerusalem to Jericho, Hure was a spring from which and that here the traveller was the place received its name, and robbed, mentioned Luke xth, here was an idol, worshipped who was so kindly relieved by by the heathen inhabitants with the good Samaritan. The place grea: veneration. was notorious for the haunt of There is, however, a dispute, robbers, so much so, that a whether the word be not an castle was built there for the appellative, signifying, an open defence of travellers. Its very place, as it is in our bibles, or name is supposed to express the dividing of iwo roads, or its character; it signifies the two eyes, as a traveller in such red, or bloody ones.

a place looks both ways to asÆGYPT, See EGYPT. certain, wliich is the right, or ÆGYPT,

ог, а two fountains or wells. The stream which was the limit of Septuagint consider it a proper Judea south. Gol promised name, and translate it at the to Abraham to give him all gates of Enan, Gen. xxxviii,

RIVER

SALEM.

14. Bonfrerius. See Enam. loaded with rags and years

ÆLIA-CAPITOLINA, a were seen going up mount name given to Jerusalern, and Olivet, to lament the ruin of therefore mentioned here, when the temple. This sight they the emperor Adrian, about the purchased very dearly. A year of Jesus Christ, 134, set. marble Venus was set up on tled a Roman colony in it, and Calvary, on the rock where the entirely banished the Jews, for. cross had stood; a marble hog bidding them on pain of death was placed on the gate, which to continue there. See JERU. looked toward Bethlehem, a

grove was planted in honor of This name was given it be- Adonis, to whom was dedicatcause Ælius, was of Adrian's ed the cave in which our Savfamily; and it was called Capi- ior was born. Notwithstandtolina from Jupiter Capitolinus, ing the gross indignities offer. to whom the city was conse- ea to these places, consecrated crated, and to whom a temple by the birth, death, and resurwas built on the spot where rection of Jesus Christ, still Jesus rose from the dead. It they were venerated by Chris. went by this name, till the time tians, and greatly respected by of the emperor Constantine, many of the pagan world. when it resumed that of Jeru- These insulting pollutions of salem. However, the name sacred places, were followed Ælia was not long abolished, with one advantage, they confor it was so called long after tributed to identify and perConstantine, as may be seen in petuate the knowledge of the Greek, Latin, and Mahometan very places, where those interauthors. Jerome says that the esting events took place, and Jews were now forbid to cir- to keep them in remembrance cumcise their children; he says for a day of subsequent honors. also that the Jews at this time ÆN or Ain a city, first bought permission of the Ro- given to the tribe of Judah; man soldiers to look on Jerusa- but afterwards yielded up to lem, and shed tears over it. the tribe of Simeon, Josh. xv, Thus the people, who bought 32; 1 Chr. iv, 32. Æn signiJesus Christ with money, were fies a fountain, and is to be met obliged to pay a price, even for within composition in the the indulgence of their own names of several cities. tears. Old men and women AIN.CHARIN, a village of

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