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bly carried her that same month end of December of the third to Sofala. All the time she spent year. She had no need of more at Tarshish was not lost, for time to complete her voyage, part of her cargo was to be and it was not possible she brought from that place; and could do it in less. she probably bought, bespoke, Such is a very short and imor left it there. From May of perfect abstract of our author's the second year, to the end of reasoning. We are now to give that monsoon in October, the another ingenious conjecture vessel could not stir; the wind concerning the situation of O. was north-east. But this time, phir, by Dr. Doeg, “The first far from being lost, was neces- time,” says he, “that Ophir, or sary to the traders for getting rather Aufir, occurs in scrip. in their cargo, which we will ture, is in Gen. x, 29, where suppose was ready for them. the sacred historian, enumer. The ship sails, on her return, ating the sons of Joktan, men. in the month of November of tions Aufir, as one of them.” the second year, with the mon- According to his account, the soon south-west, which in a descendants of the 13 brothers, very few weeks, would have settled all in a contiguous sitcarried her into the Arabian uation from Mesha, (the Mogulf. But

off Mocha, near Me. cha of the moderns) to Sephara linda and Tarshish, she met the a mountain of the East. Monorth-east monsoon, and was ses, as everyone knows,denomobliged to go into that port and inates countries and the inhabitstay there, till the end of that ants of countries, from the pamonsoon; after which a south- triarch from whom these in hab. wester came to her relief in itants descended. In describMay of the third year. With ing the course of one of the the May monsoon she ran to branches of the river of Paradise, Mocha within the straits; and the same Moses informs us that was there confined by the sum. it encompassed the whole land mer monsoon blowing up the of Havilah, &c. which abound. Arabian gulf from Suez, and ed with fine gold, bdelium, and meeting her. Here she lay till the onyx stones, and this land that monsoon, which in summer had its name from Havilah, the blows northerly from Suez, 12th son of the patriarch Jokchanged to a south-east one, in tan.

tan. Ophir or Äufir, was HavOctober or November, and that ilah's immediate elder brother, very easily brought her up into and of course the descendants the Elanitic gulf, the middle or of the former, in all probability,

we

fixed their habitation in the The Ophir of Solomon in neighborhood of the latter. If whatever part of Africa it lay, then the land of Havilah a. must have been well known bounded with gold and precious prior to his reign, both to the stones, the land of Ophir un- Phænicians and the Edomites. doubtedly produced the same These people navigated their articles. Here then we have monarch's fleets, and therefore the original Ophir; here was could be no strangers to the found the primary gold of O. port to which they were bound. phir; and here lay the Ophir That it was in Africa is certain, mentioned in Job x, 24. But and that it was on the west as navigation was then in its in- coast of that simmense peninfant state, the native land of sula, will appear more than gold, mentioned by Job, must probable, when we have ascerhave been much nearer home, tained the situation of Tarshish than that to which the fleets of and the usual course of the Solomon and Hiram made their Phænician navigation. Το triennial voyages. That sever- these objects, therefore, al countries on the south-east shall now direct our inquiries. of Africa, abounded with gold Javan the fourth son of the long after the era of Job, is ev. patriarch Japhet, had four sons, ident from the testimony of Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Herodotus, Strabo, Diodorus Dodanim or Rodanim; among Siculus, Ptolemy, Pomponius, whose descendants were the Mela, &c. But that in these isles of the Gentiles divided. countries the Ophir of Solo. The city of Tarsus on the coast mon, could not be situated is of Cilicia, at once ascertains plain, because his ships in the the region, colonized by the same voyage touched at Tar- descendants of Tarshisb. shish, which lay in a very dif Having proved to a demonferent quarter.

stration, that the original TarThe Abyssinian traveller has shish was a region on the westplaced this regio aurifero in ern coast of Asia Minor, where Sofala, on the eastern coast of either the patriarch of that Africa, nearly opposite to the name, or some of his imme. island of Madagascar. This diate descendants, planted a hypothesis was current a hun- colony, it remains to determine dred years before he was born; whether this was actually the but I am persuaded, says our country from which Solomon author, that it is not tenable. imported the vast quantities of

was.

silver, mentioned by the sacred silver sold by the merchants of historian. That it was not our Tarshish, was the product of author frankly acknowledges; that country. When the misand therefore, says he, we must take came to be discovered, look out for Solomon's Tar- they very naturally transferred shish in some other quarter of the name Tarshish from the the globe. To pave the way country of the merchants, to for this discovery, he very that of the articles which they justly observes, that it has at imported. Let us now, says all times been a common prac- our author, try if we cannot tice, to transfer the name of find out where this country one country to another, in con

It need not now be sequence of some analogy or shown, by quotations from I. resemblance between them. It saiah and Ezekiel, that the has likewise often happened merchants of Tarshish traded that when a commodity was in the markets of Tyre, with brought from a very distant silver, iron, lead, and tin. country, by a very distant peo. To these authorities we shall ple, the people to whom it was add another from Jeremiah: imported have taken it for “Silver, (says that prophet,) granted, that it was produced spread into plates, is brought in the region from which it from Tarshish.” But in Spain, was immediately brought to continues our learned dissertathem. Of the truth of this tor, all those commodities, were proposition, no man acquainted found in the greatest abun. with the Greek and Roman dalice. All the ancient authors, poets, can for a moment enter. who describe that region, dwell tain a doubt. Hence the As- with rapture on its silver mines. syrium Ammomum of Virgil, Spain was then the region, and the Assyrium malabathrum which furnished Solomon's of Horace, though these articles traders with the immense mass were the product, not of As- of silver he is said to have im. syria, but of India. The Jews, ported. This was the modern who were as little acquainted Tarshish, and indeed both Jowith foreign countries, as the sephus and Eusebius are posi. Greeks and Romans, had very tive that the posterity of Tarprobably the same notions with shish actually peopled that them respecting articles of com- country. If this was an early merce, and if so, they would opinion, as it certainly was, the undoubtedly suppose, that the Jews would of course denomi.

riate Spain, from the patriarch not the Ashurim, were the in question.

people, who manufactured the It might be shown that benches in question. the inhabitants of Tarshish Be that as it may, the ivory were strictly connected, with of which these implements were the Kittim or Grecians: I shall formed, was imported from the here produce an authority, isles of Kittim, that is, from which will provetoa demonstra- Greece and its neighborhood. tion, that the Kittim had extend. These islands it is certain ed their commerce into that part never produced ivory. They of Africa now called Barbary. must, therefore, have imported

The prophet Ezekiel, xxvii, it from some other country; 6, describing the splendor and but no other country to magnificence of Tyre, tells us, which the Greeks and their "that the company of the Ash- neighbors could have extended urites made her benches of ivo. their commerce, except the ry, brought from the isles of north of Africa, produced that Kittim." In the first place

. I commodity. The conclusion must observe, that there is pro- then is, that the maritime states bably a small error in the or- of Asia Minor, Greece, and thography of the word Ashurim. probably the Hetruscans on This term is every where in the west coast of Italy, carscripture translated Assyrians, ried on a gainful commerce which translation is certainly with Spain and Barbary, at a just. But how the Assyrians very early period. could export ivory from the We have seen that the o. isles of Kittim, and fashion it riginal Tarshish, on the coast into benches for the Tyrian of Asia Minor, did not promariners, is in my opinion, a duce the metals imported by problem of no easy solution. Solomon's feet; that no TarThe fact is, Ashurim should shish is to be found in the be Asherim, that is, the com- eastern parts of the globe, that pany of the men of Asher. The the Tarshish, we are in quest tribe of Asher obtained its in. of, was undoubtedly situated heritance in the neighborhood somewhere towards the west of Tyre, Josh. xix, 28. And of Judea; we have shown that Hebron and Rehol, and Hamon, the mercantile people of Asia and Canah, unto Zidon the Minor, Greece, and probably of great. The companies of the Italy, actually imported some tribe of the Asherites then, and of those articles from the coast

of Africa; we have hazarded From this deduction it apa conjecture, that Spain was pears highly probable, at least, the modern Tarshish, and that that the Spanish Bætica was very country from which Sol. originally called Tarshish. Inomon imported his silver, and deed this similarity of names the Tyrians their silver, iron, has operated so powerfully on tin, and lead.

the learned Bochart and on Let us novy make a trial

some other

moderns of no whether we

cannot exhibit mean figure, that they have some internal proofs in support positively affirmed, as Josephus of the hypothesis we have above had done before them, that the adopted.-“The ancients divid. patriarch Tarshish actually seted Spain into three parts; tled in that country. This, I Bætica, Lusitania, and Trav. should think not altogether aconensis. Bætica is the mod. probable, but that his descendern Andalusia. It stretched ants, who settled on the coast along the Fretum Herculeum, of Asia Minor, colonized Beeor the strait of Gibraltar, to the tica, and carried on an uninter. mouth of Gaudalquiver. This rupted commerce to that counregion is thought bysome tohave try, along with the Phænicians, been the Elysian fields of the for many centuries, after it was poets. The river Boetis which peopled, and that from the cir. divides it is called Tartessus, cumstances above narrated, it by Aristotle, Stesichorus, Stra was denominated Tarshish, are bo, Pausanias, Steph. Bysant, facts too evident to admit of and Avianus. Here too we contradiction. have a city and lake of the Let us now see, whether this same name. But Tartessus is Bætica, where I have endeav. positively the very same with ored to fix the situation of TarTarshish. The Greeks man shish of the scriptures, was ac. ufactured the rest, by chang- tually furnished with those aring Tarshish into Tarsis, and ticles of commerce, which are in process of time into Tar. said to have been imported tessus. That the Phænicians from that country. To enlarge actually changed schin into on this topic would be altogeththau is certain; for Plutarch

er superfluous. Diodorus Sictells us in the life of Sylla, ulus, Strabo, Polybius, Pliny, that in their language an ox Solinus, and in one word, all the was called thor, which is, no Greek and Roman bistorians, doubt, the same with the He- who have mentioned that re. brew shor."

gion, have unanimously ex

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