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lished last year (page 28 of report), this shows a very gratifying increase in all respects.

List of sheep owners of the east part of Mora County.

Lake Ranch Cattle Company.

Romero & Garcia
Celso Lopez
Nicanor Romero.
Romualdo Baca
Cruz Gonzales
Jesus Chavez
Romualdo Gonzales
Lujan & Pinard
Juan Rodriguez.
Pantaleon Anaya.
Luciano Solano.
John Tixin.
Leonardo Vigil..
Sixto Apodaca
Guadalupe Montoya
Fabian Chavez.

Jose Manuel Gonzales & Bros.

Baca Brothers.

Leonardo Vigil..
Valentin Montoya
Juan Montoya
Juan Vigil
Donaciano Vigil.
Leon Shaw
Guadalupe Lovato
Abelino Garcia.
Telesfor Gonzales
Luis F. Garcia
Jose Manuel Garcia
Francisco Garcia.
Maximo Garcia.
Jose de la Luz Garcia
Francisco Miera.
Agapito Padia
Juan Rodriguez, sr.
Preciliano Martinez.

Total.

Name.

Sheep.

METALS.

10,000

4,500

1,000

700 1,900 500

3,000

3,000

26,000

1,200

1,500

1,500

3,500

1,400

2,000

500

800
4,000

17,000
1,500

800

600

2,000

2,500

6,000

2,000

4,000

4,500

12,000

2,000

2,200

2,500

2,000

1,800

1,600

Wool.

75,000

22,500

3.000

2,000

4,500

2.500

9.000

16,000

112,000

6,500

6,500

6,500

15,000

3,000

7,000

2,000

2,500

20,000

68,000

4,500

2,500

1,800

7,000

9.000

35,000

8,000

16,000

1,600

65,000

10,000

9,000

10,000

9,000

7,000

3,200

4,000

12,000

4,000

16,000

140, 000 625, 600

Lambs.

4,000

2,000

600

300

1, 200

500

2,000

2,000

11,000

800

800

800

2,000

900

1,000

400

400

1,600

7,000

1.000

600

400

1,000

1,300

3.000

1,400

1,500

1,800

7,000

1,300

1,000

1, 400

1,300 1,000

800 2.000

1,500

67, 600

I believe the wool crop of 1892 reaches 16,000,000 pounds, notwithstanding the statements of Messrs. Brown & Manzanares and Mr. Pierce. Previous experience has taught me that in each place they underestimate the amount of wool in the Territory not brought to their own market. The shipments outside of Las Vegas and Albuquerque amount to at least 4,000,000 pounds, and perhaps 4,500,000. The total value of the crop was something over $2,500,000.

MINING.

This important industry has seen its usual ups and downs during the past year, but as a whole is in a flourishing condition. Our miners, now that they are relieved from the degrading competition with the half-paid laborer of Mexico, are able to command a fair American compensation for their work throughout the year. It would be hard to imagine a case in which the present tariff has been of such immediate and obvious benefit as that of silver-lead ores.

The most important increase in production has been at White Oaks, in the Old Abe mine and elsewhere on Baxter Mountain.· Mr. William Watson, of White Oaks, writing of that section, says:

The North Homestake, Lady Godiva, Old Abe, American, and Helen Rae mines have all produced more or less gold bullion. The development of mining industry

is much greater than any previous year, especially in the North Homestake, where at a depth of 1,000 feet the value of the ore increased $4 a ton, while the discovery of a rich vein of gold on both the Helen Rae and American mines, which yielded $100 per ton, is very encouraging. The new discoveries of gold veins in the Organ Mountain have great promise. There seems good reason to believe that New Mexico will soon be a large gold producer, as the deeper the workings have been pushed the better the result.

The Old Abe began to produce January, 1891, and from then to this date $354,589 has been extracted from it. The main shaft is 600 feet deep, with 13 levels, the total excavations amounting to 3,600 feet. The South Homestake has produced $280,000, and though an accidental fire has stopped its flow of wealth, it will soon be in order to continue its production. The North Homestake has a shaft 985 feet deep, and over 5,000 feet of excavations. A new body of rich ore has just been struck at the depth above mentioned. The Lady Godiva mine is 635 deep, and 800 tons of its ore, averaging $27.50 per ton, have been treated already at the White Oaks gold mill. All of these mines, together with a number of others, are in the famous Baxter Mountain, which seems to be a storehouse of wealth.

At Hillsboro great prosperity prevails and the output is continually increasing. It bids fair to become one of the great producing districts of the country.

The following letter from Prof. Charles Longuemare, editor of the Bullion, and an acknowledged authority on mining matters in the Southwest, gives a general outline of the progress and condition of the industry in New Mexico at the present time:

EL PASO, TEX., August 9, 1892.

SIR: In response to your request I furnish the following brief résumé of the progress of the mining industry in New Mexico within the twelve months since the date of your last annual report. One of the most notable events is the decrease of the production of silver in the Territory, a fact that has been noticed by Walter C. Hadley, E. M., in his annual report to the Director of the Mint, wherein he estimates the decrease of silver since the year 1890, at 23.7 per cent. He also finds for the same period a decrease of the production of lead of 17.9 per cent; but upon the other hand has reported an increase of the gold production of New Mexico for the same time of 28 per cent. These figures have been very generally accepted as correct or nearly so. The falling off of the production of silver since the date of Mr. Hadley's report has continued in proportion as the market value of silver has diminished, and owing to the conditions under which silver and lead are found in nature I believe that a diminishing product of the latter metal has also continued to manifest itself. That the unnatural depreciation of the value of silver is responsible for the diminishing output of the "white metal" in New Mexico, no one will attempt to deny who is conversant with all of the facts of the case. But to remove any doubts I will state that good authorities estimate that the average cost of producing one ounce of silver in the Territory amounts to 80 cents, and that on Saturday, August 13, 1892, silver had declined to 824 cents per ounce, or in other words only 2 cents above the actual average cost of producing an ounce of silver in New Mexico.

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The increased product of gold in New Mexico is due to the increased attention which has been devoted by miners and capital in searching for and developing gold claims that in previous years had been neglected, and also to the fact that more than one property in the Territory commenced its production career as the result of the development of previous years. This increased interest in gold mining has been particularly felt at Hillsboro and at White Oaks, though it is perceptible in almost every county in the Territory. At White Oaks the output of gold from the Old Abe and the North Homestake mines has been quite a factor in the increased production of gold; other properties in the vicinity are also preparing to produce. At Nogal, a few miles from White Oaks, the American mine is yielding good grade gold ore and recently I have been advised of the intersection in that property of a body of still richer mineral. The ore bodies of Baxter Mountain, in which the Old Abe and the North Homestake are located, are phenomenal because of the depth to which the free milling gold ore descends; in the latter mine to a depth of 985 feet and in the Old Abe the ore has paid from the grass roots, has been continuous to the present depth of over 600 feet, and continues to be free milling. Late advices have

reached me that indicate that the South Homestake, lying adjacent to the North Homestake, is also upon the eye of furnishing its contingent of gold to increase the product of the Territory. The Bonanza at Hillsboro has been worked continuously in the most satisfactory manner and is daily adding to New Mexico's gold output. The claims upon the Eastern slope of the Organ Mountains are receiving attention and at this moment a milling plant is in course of erection there, owned by White Oak pårties. There has also been a notable increase of interest manifested in the production of gold in Grant, Sierra, Socorro, Santa Fe, Colfax, and Rio Arriba counties, and in fact throughout the Territory; and as I predicted years ago numerous districts in northern and central New Mexico that have been neglected have during the past twelve months been revisited by prospectors, and many relocations, particularly of gold claims, have been made.

I am pleased to chronicle a striking interest that has shown itself among prospectors and miners in giving attention to those sources of wealth that have all along been considered by them of little value. Of these coal and iron rank first. Of the former the recent discovery of a 6-foot vein at Salada is notable. The area containing good bituminous coal in Lincoln County will have a powerful influence upon the industrial future of southern New Mexico, which is not at all lessened by the presence of large bodies of high-grade iron ore in the immediate vicinity of the fuel, with which to convert the latter into an article of commerce. Coal has also been discovered near Tularosa and the probabilities are favorable to its discovery between Silver City and Las Cruces and in the vicinity of Deming; at least the conditions are sufficiently favorable to warrant attempts being made to determine the fact.

Discoveries of the following elements of wealth have frequently occurred during the past year: Coal, iron, marble (black, white and variegated), Mexican onyx, sulphate of lime, sulphate of salt, fire clay, bitumen, and serpentine. Tin has been identified in Grant County, and the deposits of alumina on the Gila in the same county are being explored. While silver has reached the lowest price in its annals, the enthusiasm of the prospector has not diminished, and in consequence frequent discoveries of silver ore bodies have been made during the year as well as of copper, zine, and lead. The El Paso Smelting Works have been materially enlarged and the Rio Grande Smelting Works at Socorro have been much increased in capacity, numerous improvements and additions having been made.

Two extensive sampling works have been erected, one at El Paso and the other at Deming. At Hillsboro a copper plant, with the object of employing copper as a collector of gold and silver in the ores of that section, is now operating with success and is producing copper matte well charged with the precious metals. In Water Canon, Socorro County, a small concentrating plant has been erected for the purpose of treating the ore of the Gettysburg claim. If the venture is successful then more extensive plants of a kindred nature will be erected in more than one locality in the Magdalena Range to utilize the immense deposits of concentrating ores that lie there now neglected.

At Organ the Stevenson-Bennett Company is just finishing a concentrating plant of considerable capacity to treat their low-grade ore. The fire-clay works at Socorro have been in operation some months successfully, and find no difficulty in securing a profitable market from their productions. The school of mines at Socorro is upon the eve of throwing open its doors to the entrance of pupils, and this institution is destined to exercise a great and increasing influence upon the mining industry of the Southwest.

Yours, very truly,

Hon. L. BRADFORD PRINCE,

Governor of New Mexico.

CHAS. LONGUEMARE.

Walter C. Hadley, esq., who has prepared the official mining reports for New Mexico for many years, writes from the new town of Hadley, near Cooks Peak, as follows:

In Steeple Rock district there has been a sale recently of the Jim Crow gold and silver properties to Pittsburg parties. Pinos Altos, where I have just been, is likely to continue to do quite well, although things are quiet there now. Work has been resumed on the old solid silver mine at Black Hawk, and it is said that the company will sink to the 1,000-foot level before cross-cutting. Cooks Peak is really more fortunate this year than any other of the camps this side of the Rio Grande. The output of silver-lead properties has been a little larger than last year, but it is doubtful whether as much money has been received in payment owing to the prices of both lead and silver. Teel and Poe have a very fine body of ore at this time and the surprise is also in bonanza. We are not taking out any ore at this time, as we are sinking our shaft another 150 feet. Our mill has been running steadily, however,

for the past year, and it is probably the most successful plant in the Territory for the treatment of ores of this class by milling.

Lake Valley has not had so large an output as last year, but has done well; it is more than paying all expenses, and much exploration work has been done. In Hermosa I found that there is about the usual tonnage; and a new concentrating plant is erected near the Palomas Chief and Pelican.

Of course the bright particular stars in the sky at this time are the mines at White Oaks that produce gold only, and also the Hillsboro gold mines that have attracted especial attention.

I have made two reports this summer for the Santa Fe Railroad on the proposition to extend the railroad into the Black Range both from Magdalena and Lake Valley. I am satisfied that if money was not so hard to get the additional branches that are so badly needed would be built.

The following description of a new process of treating ores, now being introduced at Albuquerque by Hon. E. S. Stover, is of interest. I am indebted to W. S. Burke, secretary of the Albuquerque Commercial Club, for the facts:

An experiment is now being tried at Albuquerque with a newly-invented process for the treatment of certain classes of ores which are found in large quantities in many parts of the Territory, and this experiment, if it proves successful, as now seems to be almost assured, will have a very great influence upon the mining interests of New Mexico.

In nearly all of the camps are large bodies of ore carrying more or less of the precious metal, but so combined with other substances as to make their treatment so difficult and expensive by the ordinary method that there is little or no margin of profit left for the miner. By the new process it is claimed that these rebellious ores can be worked more cheaply than free ores can be treated by smelting. The method pursued is to pulverize the ore, subject the pulp to an electric bath, and then collect the precious metals by amalgamation. The process is very simple and inexpensive. The mill is just being started, and will not be prepared to work ore in quantities for a week or ten days; but various experiments made with small lots have all proved successful, and the gold and silver saved so thoroughly that assays of the "tailings" have failed to show a trace. If the new process stands the test of practical operation it will make a revolution in our mining affairs and will make profitable the working of hundreds of lodes in various parts of the Territory which are now practically valueless by reason of the difficulty and expense attending the treatment by fire process.

COAL.

Coal mining continues to be one of the most important industries of the Territory. It is carried on very extensively at Blossburg, near Raton; at Amargo, in Rio Arriba County; at Gallup, and at Cerrillos, and to a smaller extent in a number of other localities. The mines at Carthage, which have been extensively worked for many years, are almost entirely closed, and many buildings there have been moved to Cerrillos. The latter has become the most important point in this business in the Southwest. The owners of the great coal tracts in the vicinity have combined all interests, and in connection with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé Railroad Company are building many miles of branch railroad to connect the various mines with the main line. There is every prospect that the output of their locality in the year 1893 will be far larger than has ever been known in any part of the Territory before.

Mr. J. C. Spears, recently appointed coal-mine inspector by the President, furnishes the following information with regard to the mines at Gallup. These are situated near the Arizona line, and the shipments are nearly all to the Pacific slope.

In 1891 at all the Gallup mines combined (eight mines) 12,925 railroad cars of coal were produced, each car containing 20 tons, making a total of 258,500 tons. The output would have been much larger had the mines been worked steadily, but unfortunately three of the Aztec Coal Company's mines were closed on account of the strikes, from May 9, 1891, to about the last of July, 1891. For the same cause the Gallup Coal Company's mines were closed one month and the Black Diamond Coal

Company's mines were closed one month. I may add that most of the mines did not work more than three-quarter time from January 1, 1891, up to the date of the strike, and about the same ratio after the strike was settled in 1891.

From January 1, 1892, down to and including July 31, 1892, there were shipped from all the mines combined 7,810 railroad cars of 20 tons each, making a total of 156,200 tons. Out of the 7,810 cars produced, the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad bought 6,061 cars; the remaining 1,749 sold in northern and southern California and Albuquerque, and along the line of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. The production was as follows:

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The figures given do not include coal consumed in the town of Gallup or at the mines, but we can safely count that at 1,000 tons per month more. I will further state that the mines have only worked about 3 days per week, on an average, since January 1. 1892, with the exception of the Caledonia mine, which has averaged about 4 days per week since January 1, 1892. The reason assigned for this slackness in work is sharp competition with British Columbia coal in California and the high freight rates from Gallup to California.

Coal is sold to the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company at the mine at $1.38 per ton. Commercial coal in Gallup is delivered at $3 per ton. Miners receive 70 cents per ton for mining. Day's wages around mines are from $2 to $3 per day.

There has been no new mine opened in 1892. On January 15, 1892, the Gallup Coal Company, the Black Diamond Coal Company, and the Aztec Coal Company consolidated, and are now known as the Crescent Coal Company, and they control all the mines at Gallup but the Caledonia, Beacon Hill, and Eureka.

NEW INDUSTRIES.

FORESTS AND LUMBER.

Our forest products are destined to increase in importance as the years go by. The business has not materially changed since my last report, except that the work on the vast tract purchased by the Mitchell Brothers from the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company, and situated in Valencia and Bernalillo counties, has actually commenced. Regarding their operations Mr. Fitz Gerald, the manager, makes the following statement:

Our mills are only partially completed. We have now in operation a sawmill with an annual capacity of 30,000,000 feet. A planing mill with improved machinery of all kinds used in that branch of the lumber business is in course of construction. A railroad 9 miles in length is completed into the timber; from that point logs are transferred to the mill, which is located on the main line of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, 125 miles west from Albuquerque. As you already are aware, we have an almost unlimited supply of timber suitable for all classes of building material and all grades known by the trade. The amount of lumber manufactured in the last year was of little consequence, the mill having just fairly started. As the demand for our product increases we expect to enlarge our capacity.

The amount of lumber cut on the Petaca grant during the year was 3,000,000 feet. On the Tierra Amarilla grant the amount was 15,000,000 feet, which was sawed by three mills. The product of the vicinity of Catskill and other points mentioned in previous reports is virtually unchanged. There is a probability that the vast forests on the Cebolleta grant, which are unsurpassed elsewhere, will shortly be made the source of a large production.

Various new branches of manufacture have been introduced recently, but I will only refer to two: (1) the preparation of an extract of

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