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of 11,851 strikes, or 32.24 per cent of all strikes, were for this cause alone. This cause, in combination with other causes, produced 3,117 strikes, making 40.72 per cent of all strikes attributable in whole or in part to demands for increase of wages.

The next most fruitful cause of strikes was disagreement concerning recognition of union and union rules. This cause alone produced 18.84 per cent of all strikes, and both alone and combined with other causes produced 23.35 per cent of all strikes. Objection to reduction of wages alone and combined with other causes produced 11.90 per cent of all strikes. Demands for reduction of hours alone and combined with other causes produced 9.78 per cent of all strikes.

Of the total number of establishments involved in strikes, 57.91 per cent were involved in strikes caused either in whole or in part by demands for increase of wages.

The most important cause of lockouts was disputes concerning recognition of union and union rules and employers' organization, which cause, alone and combined with various causes, produced nearly one-half of all lockouts and included more than one-half of all establishments involved in lockouts.

The greatest number of strikes that occurred in any one industry was in the building trades, which embraced 26.02 per cent of all strikes and 38.53 per cent cf all establishments involved in strikes. In the coal and coke industry were 9.08 per cent of all strikes and 9.39 per cent of all establishments involved in strikes. Many strikes were found in the following industries: Boots ard shoes; clothing, men's; foundry and machine shop; and tobacco (cigars and cigarettes). The coal and coke industry included more strikers than any other industry, also more employees thrown out of work. The second industry in order in this respect was the building trades. In the building trades were 16.49 per cent of all lockouts, more than one-half of all the establishments involved, and about 30 per cent of all the employees locked out and of persons thrown out of work.

In 1903 there were 3,494 strikes, a greater number than in any other year. The number was 471 in 1881, the first year of the period, while in 1905 the number was 2,077. More strikers went out in the year 1902 than in any other year, and more employees were thrown out of work in 1894 than in any other year.

Lockouts were more frequent and included more employees in 1903 than in any other year of the period.

In the North Atlantic division were more than one-half of all strikes, establishments involved, strikers, and employees thrown out of work. In the North Central division were almost one-third of the totals in these items named.

The percentages of the total number of strikes in the principal industrial States were as follows: New York, 27.75 per cent; Penn

per cent, and Ohio, 6.99 per cent. Of the strikers, 25.12 per cent of the total number were in Pennsylvania, 21.15 per cent in New York, 13.31 per cent in Illinois, 6.36 per cent in Ohio, and 5.25 per cent in Massachusetts. These States named were also the States in which the greatest number of lockouts occurred.

A number of interesting tables have been prepared from the general tables shown in the body of the report and are presented in this chapter. These tables, as well as the general tables, do not include strikes or lockouts of less than one day's duration. An explanation of the various terms used in the tables of this report will be found in the discussion and explanation of the general tables, page 107 et seq. STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND

EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK.

A series of three tables shows the number of strikes, establishments involved, strikers, and employees thrown out of work, and also the average number of establishments involved per strike, the average number of strikers per strike, and the average number of employees thrown out of work per strike. The first table of the series shows these data by years, the second by industries, and the third by States and geographical divisions.

The table by years follows:

STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES TIIROWN

OUT OF WORK, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1905.

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The total number of strikes during the period from 1881 to 1905 was 36,757, the number of establishments involved 181,407, the number of strikers 6,728,048, and the number of employees thrown out of work 8,703,824.

For the 25-year period from 1881 to 1905 the average number of establishments per strike was 4.9, the average number of strikers per strike was 183, and the average number of employees thrown out of work per strike was 237.

Considering the strikes by the years in which they occurred, it is seen from the above table that the number of strikes per year varied from 443 in 1884 to 3,494 in 1903, the number of establishments involved varied from 2,105 in 1882 to 20,248 in 1903, the number of strikers from 101,070 in 1881 to 553,143 in 1902, and the number of employees thrown out of work from 129,521 in 1881 to 660,425 in 1894. The average number of establishments per strike varied from 3.5 in 1885, 1889, and 1893 to 7.9 in 1897; the number of strikers per strike from 85 in 1905 to 374 in 1894, and the number of employees thrown out of work from 107 in 1905 to 490 in 1894.

The second table of the series presents the statistics by industries:

STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN

OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905.

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Agricultural implements..

1.1 16,997 195 22,912 264 Agriculture.................

13,065 373 13,227 Automobiles and bicycles.

5,579 71

9.073

115 Awnings, tents, and sails.

3.0
374

374 Bakery........

424 6,423 15.1 29,811 70 32,531 Blacksmithing and horseshoeing.

2,979 33.9 7,123

7,576

86 Boots and shoes.....

1,101 1,555

1.4
88,553 80 160,059

145 Brass and brass goods..

119 284

2.4

12,536 105 13,729 1 115 Brewing............

106
874 5.3 16,651

100
18,177

110 Brick and tile.. 332 1,476 4.4 81,391 215 90,410

272 Brooms and brushes...

12
1.5 1,694

40
2,050

49 Building trades (a).

9,564 69,899 7.31 917,905 96 61,083,699 b 113 Canning and preserving.

48
113
2.4
6,928 1444

9,164 Car building..

441
1.4 66,181 150 89,277

202 Carpets....

175
2.4 37,830 216 66,109

378 Carriages and wagons...

125 1,120 11.4. 20,512 101 23,351 Clothing, men's..........

1,147 15,996 13.9 372,211 325 459 059 400 Clothing, women's.....

610 4,918

215,595 337 232,154 303 Coal and coke...

3,336 17,025 5.1 2,006,353 001 2,460,743 738 Collins and undertakers' goods.

15
1.8

29
916

61 Confectionery .............

17
39 2.3 1,383

2,820 Cooperage......

1,086
3.4 25.652

79 27, 474 Cotton and woolen goods..

111 440 4.0 38, 308 315 64,928 Cotton goois....

605 832 1.3 166, 357 250 277,470 417 Cutlery and edge tools...

5,202

8,102

90 Domestic service....

2,924 8.7 31,803

32,212 95 Electric and gas apparatus and supplies.......

61 111

6,364

6,768 106 Electric light and power...

150
4,117

4,371 Flour mill products..

89 2.1 3,880

4.723

112 Foundry and machine shop... 1,688 4,722 2.8 208,352

125
282,706

169 Freight handling and teaming.. 916' 5,665 6.2 219,515

275 483 301 Furnishing goods, men's....... 202885 4.4 21,919 109 30,297

150 Furniture and upholstering........ 535, 1,551 2.91 54,135 | 101 61,869 116

Including 1 strike involving nearly all industries in New Orleans, the principal industry affected being building trades.

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STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN

OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1905-Concluded.

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Gas..........
Glass.....
Gloves and mittens....
Hardware...
Harness and saddlery.
Hats and caps....
Hosiery and knits
Iron and steel....
Ironwork, ornamental.
Jewelry and silverware.
Laundry work......
Leather ...........
Leather goods....
Lime and cement..
Lithographing .....
Lumber and timber products
Metallic goods.........
Millinery goods........
Mining, ore...........
Musical instruments...
Paper.......
Paper goods..
Planing mill products.
Pottery ....
Printing and publishing..
Public works......
Railroad and road building
Railroad transportation.
Rope, twine, and bagging...
Rubber goods....
Shipbuilding....
Silk goods........
Slaughtering and meat packing...
Smelting and refining .....
Stone quarrying and cutting....
Stoves and furnaces.....
Street railway transportatio
Streets and sewers......
Telegraph and telephone......
Tin and sheet metal goods...
Tobacco: chewing and smoking..
Tobacco: cigars and cigarettes.
Trunks and valises....
Typewriters, cash registers, and

sewing machines.....
Watches and clocks....
Water transportation..
Wooden goods........
Woolen goods...
Miscellaneous...

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14,517
15,738

5,329
56,939
16,013
44,424
20,613
79,134
123,413

5,327 11.020 46,808 58,404 106,078

13,267 122,671

20,877 116,896 60,748 21,642 25,105 10, 415 231,988

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a Not including 2 strikes involving 33 establishments not reported.

A greater number of strikes occurred in the building trades than in any other industry. In that industry during the years from 1881 to 1905 there were 9,564 strikes, 69,899 establishments involved, 917,905 strikers, and 1,083,699 employees thrown out of work in the establishments involved in strikes. The size of the strikes in the building trades is indicated by the figures in the average columns. The average number of establishments involved in each strike was 7.3, the average number of strikers per strike 96, and the average number of employees thrown out of work per strike 113.

The coal and coke industry was second in importance so far as number of strikes and establishments involved were concerned, but first in number of strikers and employees thrown out of work. In the coal and coke industry there were 3,336 strikes, 17,025 establishments involved, 2,006,353 strikers, and 2,460,743 employees thrown out of work. The average per strike was 5.1 establishments, 601 strikers, and 738 employees thrown out of work. So far as the average number of establishments involved was concerned, the strikes in the coal and coke industry were considerably smaller than the strikes in the building trades, but both the average number of strikers and the average number of employees thrown out of work were more than six times as great in the coal and coke strikes as in the building trades strikes.

The average number of establishments involved per strike varied from 1 to 33.9. Two industries averaged 1 establishment each, and one industry (blacksmithing and horseshoeing) averaged 33.9 establishments per strike.

The average number of strikers per strike varied from 29 in the manufacture of coffins and undertakers' goods to 684 in slaughtering and meat packing.

The average number of employees thrown out of work per strike varied from 37 in the manufacture of awnings, tents, and sails to 839 in slaughtering and meat packing.

The average number of strikers and of employees thrown out of work indicate the size of a strike, but a strike of only a few men in certain occupations or industries may as successfully tie up the establishment or industry temporarily as a much larger number in other occupations or industries.

The presentation by States and geographical divisions follows:

STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, STRIKERS, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT

OF WORK, BY STATES AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1881 TO 1905. (See Table V, pages 480 to 485, for notes relating to general strikes extending into two or more

States.)

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Alabama.. Arizona..... Arkansas.. California.. Colorado.... Connecticut Delaware... District of C Florida..... Georgia.... Idaho..... Illinois..... Indiana ..... Indian Territory Iowa...

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95 238 1.10 195 333 198 585 178

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21 3,624 1, 126

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