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Arts. 142-145

24 (SIX EXERCISES).—Gerundive Participle
Ex. :--“My sister said she had to write a


25 (NINETEEN EXERCISES).-Miscellaneous.
Ex.:-“We believe that Portia, being asked

what she had done and what she
was going to do, replied that she
had built a wall and was going to
write a letter."

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1. Let the Pupil be taught, if necessary, what is meant by a Verb and by a Noun (i..., a Substantive).

2. Let him also learn to distinguish between the Nominative and Accusative in English Nouns and Adjectives, noticing that a Noun in the Nominative Case governs and generally precedes the Verb, while a Noun in the Accusative (or Objective) Case is governed by the Verb, and generally follows it. Illustrate this by the use of English Pronouns, as He saw us," “ We saw him."

3. In Latin some Verbs end in āre, (rhyming to “ Mary "), as laudare, “to praise"; ædificare, “to build.” If instead of “ tó praise," you wish to say “ he praises,” or “he is praising," the are is changed into at. Thus, laudat, means “he is praising”

or “he praises." It also would be used, if you wished to say, " she is praising" or "she praises." And it would be used in such a sentence as “Balbus praises the girl”;

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which means “Balbus, he-is-praising the girl ”; or in “ the girl does not praise Balbus ” ; which means girl, she-is-praising not Balbus."

4. If a Verb ends in are, and you wish to say " he was

doing so and so, the are must be changed into ābat: as laudābat," he was praising”; ædificābat,

; "he was building." Or, if

wish to


• he will" do so and so, the are must be changed into ābit : as ædificābit," he will build "; laudābit, “ he will praise.” ”

" 5. Verbs which end in are, are said to be of the First Conjugation.

6. Some Nouns have the Nominative ending in a, as puella, a girl.” For the Accusative of these Nouns change a into am. Thus,

Thus," he praises the girl," would be laudat puellam. These Nouns are said to be of the First Declension.

7. There are other Nouns whose Accusative ends in um. They are said to be of the Second Declension. Their Nominative ends in us or er.

(a) When the Nom. ends in us, the Acc. is formed by changing us into um ;—as Nom. servus,

a slave”; Acc. servum.

(b) When the Nom. ends in er, the um is added : in some the e of the er is dropped : as

a boy": Acc.

Nom. magister “a master” : Acc. magistrum.

8. When the Pupil has learned these seven inflexions, viz., three in Verbs and four in Nouns, let him be well practised in their use, first by word of mouth, and afterwards by writing; and at first let him use the first vocabulary,


Nom. puer



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